Turkey: Türkiye’de Arabulucuk, İngiltere’deki Arabulucuk İle Karşilaştirmasi Ve İleriye Yönelik Öneri

Last Updated: 19 November 2014
Article by BATI Lawyers & Advisers

Türkiye'deki Arabuluculuk Hakkında Genel Bilgi

6325 sayılı Hukuk Uyuşmazlıklarında Arabuluculuk Kanunu ("Kanun") 22.06.2012 tarihli ve 28331 sayılı Resmi Gazete'de yayımlanmış olup, Kanun'un 37. Maddesi uyarınca, 22.06.2013 tarihinde yürürlüğe girmiştir. Hukuk Uyuşmazlıklarında Arabuluculuk Kanunu Yönetmeliği ise, 22.01.2013 tarihli ve 28540 sayılı Resmi Gazete'de yayımlanarak yine 22.06.2013 tarihinde yürürlüğe girmiştir.

Kanun, yabancılık unsuru taşıyanlar da dâhil olmak üzere, tarafların üzerinde serbestçe tasarruf edebilecekleri iş veya işlemlerden doğan özel hukuk uyuşmazlıklarının çözümlenmesinde uygulanır.

Arabuluculuk, Kanun'un 2. Maddesi'nde, "sistematik teknikler uygulayarak, görüşmek ve müzakerelerde bulunmak amacıyla tarafları bir araya getiren, onların birbirlerini anlamalarını ve bu suretle çözümlerini kendilerinin üretmesini sağlamak için aralarında iletişim sürecinin kurulmasını gerçekleştiren, uzmanlık eğitimi almış olan tarafsız ve bağımsız bir üçüncü kişinin katılımıyla ve ihtiyarî olarak yürütülen uyuşmazlık çözüm yöntemi" olarak tanımlanmaktadır.

Sicile kayıtlı olan arabulucular, arabuluculuk unvanını ve bu unvanın sağladığı yetkileri kullanma hakkına sahiptirler. Arabulucuların sicile kaydedilebilmesi için:

  • Türk vatandaşı olması,
  • Mesleğinde en az beş yıllık kıdeme sahip hukuk fakültesi mezunu olması,
  • Tam ehliyetli olması,
  • Kasten işlenmiş bir suçtan mahkûm olmaması,
  • Arabuluculuk eğitimini tamamlamış ve Bakanlıkça yapılan yazılı ve uygulamalı sınavı geçmiş olmaları gerekmektedir.

Arabuluculuğa ilişkin temel ilkeler aşağıda özetlenmektedir:

Arabulucunun Tarafsızlığı

Arabulucular, arabuluculuk faaliyetini yürütürken tarafsız davranmak zorundadırlar. Buna ek olarak, arabulucular tarafları herhangi bir şekilde yönlendiremez veya herhangi bir çözümü kabul etmeye zorlayamazlar.

İradi Olma ve Eşitlik

Taraflar, arabulucuya başvurma, süreci devam ettirme, sonuçlandırma veya bu süreçten vazgeçme hususunda serbesttirler. Buna ek olarak, taraflar, eşit haklara sahiptirler.

Gizlilik

Taraflarca aksi kararlaştırılmadıkça, arabulucu, arabuluculuk faaliyeti çerçevesinde kendisine sunulan veya diğer bir şekilde elde ettiği bilgi ve belgeler ile diğer kayıtları gizli tutmakla yükümlüdür. Aksi kararlaştırılmadıkça, taraflar da bu konudaki gizliliğe uymak zorundadırlar.

Beyan veya Belgelerin Kullanılamaması

Uyuşmazlıkla ilgili olarak hukuk davası açıldığında veya tahkim yoluna başvurulduğunda; taraflar, arabulucu veya arabuluculuğa katılanlar da dâhil üçüncü bir kişi, arabuluculuk davetini, bir tarafın arabuluculuk faaliyetine katılma isteğini, ileri sürülen görüş ve teklifleri ve ileri sürülen öneri, olay veya iddiaların kabulü ile arabuluculuk için hazırlanan evraklar olmak üzere arabuluculuk beyan ve belgelerini delil olarak ileri süremezler. Ancak, söz konusu bilgiler bir kanun hükmü tarafından emredildiği veya arabuluculuk süreci sonunda varılan anlaşmanın uygulanması ve icrası için gerekli olduğu ölçüde açıklanabilir.

Arabuluculuk Sürecinin Zamanaşımı Sürelerinde Hesaplanmaması

Arabuluculuk sürecinin başlamasından sona ermesine kadar geçirilen süre, zamanaşımı ve hak düşürücü sürelerin hesaplanmasında dikkate alınmaz.

Davanın açılmasından sonra, arabuluculuğa başvurulması durumunda, yargılama (tarafların başvurması halinde ek olarak üç ay daha uzatılabilecek olan) en fazla üç aylık süre ile ertelenir. Bu itibarla, arabuluculuk faaliyetinin başarılı bir şekilde sonuçlanamaması durumunda, taraflar zamanaşımı sebebiyle herhangi bir hak kaybına uğramayacaktır.

Son olarak, Hukuk Muhakemeleri Kanunu'nun arabuluculuğu içerecek şekilde tadil edildiğini ve mahkemelerin tarafları sulhe ek olarak arabuluculuğa da teşvik etmesinin sağlandığını belirtmek isteriz.

İngiltere'deki Arabuluculuk ile Karşılaştırması

Öncelikle, İngiltere'de arabuluculuk ile ilgili herhangi bir özel mevzuatın bulunmadığını, 1998 yılı İngiltere Medeni Usul Hukuk Kuralları'nın, arabuluculuk dahil olmak üzere Alternatif Uyuşmazlık Çözümü'ne atıfta bulunduğunu ve bu yönde teşvik ettiğini belirtelim. Mahkemelerin, uygun görmeleri durumunda, tarafları Alternatif Uyuşmazlık Çözüm yollarına başvurmaları yönünde teşvik etme görevi bulunmaktadır.

Bu doğrultuda, İngiltere'de arabuluculuk iradi olmakla birlikte, İngiltere medeni usul hukuku tarafların arabuluculuğu dikkate alması ve uyuşmazlığın arabuluculuk ile çözümlendirilmesi yönünde teşvikler sunmaktadır. Bu meyanda, hâkimler, makul bir neden olmaksızın arabuluculuğu reddeden taraf hakkında, masraflara ilişkin yaptırımlar (örneğin, kazanan tarafı masraflarını almaktan mahrum etme gibi) uygulama hakkını haizdirler. Arabuluculuğu reddeden tarafın, iyi ve geçerli sebepleri olması gerekmektedir; taraflar arabuluculuğun başarılı olma ihtimalinin bulunmadığına inan dahi, mahkemenin aksi bir karar verme ve masraflara ilişkin yaptırım uygulama riski bulunmaktadır. Bu durumda, arabuluculuğu reddeden tarafın davayı kazanması halinde bile masraflarının bir kısmı veya tamamını karşı taraftan alamaması yönünde mahkeme hükmü verilebilir.

İleriye Yönelik Öneri

Yukarıdaki değerlendirme ışığında, İngiltere'deki gibi masraflara ilişkin bir yaptırım uygulanmasının Türkiye'de arabuluculuktan etkin şekilde yararlanılmasına yardımcı olacağı kanaatindeyiz.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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