Research and Development (R&D) activities have been
supported in numerous countries since 1970's in order to
increase the industrial production activities. To maintain and
develop these activities, technoparks have been established in
Turkey and in many other countries.
How to define the technoparks?
Technopark is a special investment zone where universities,
research institutions and industrial enterprises operate their
innovation and R&D activities and where R&D activities are
supported. Technoparks and R&D incentives have been regulated
in specific laws in Turkey. According to the Technology Development
Zones Law, firms using high technology may produce or develop
technology or softwares or transform a technological innovation
into products by benefiting from the facilities of the universities
or research institutions in these technoparks. The main purpose of
technoparks is to produce and transfer technological information,
and to make innovations in order to make the country's industry
capable to compete with other industries in the world and to
provide the conformity of small and medium sized enterprises with
new and developed technologies.
Opportunities provided to enterprises in technoparks
Technoparks have been regulated by the Technology Development
Zones Law which has entered into force in 2001. This law has been
providing financial incentives to the enterprises established in
these zones. Accordingly, the enterprises may make their
investments for manufacturing of products which they derive from
their R&D activities in these zones under certain conditions.
Moreover, there are income, stamp and corporate tax exemptions for
the enterprises which are located and operate in these zones and
tax exemptions for salaries of R&D personnal working in these
zones. These incentives have been extended to 2023.
Entrepreneurship support in technoparks: business
Apart from the legal incentives, technoparks may include
business incubators which provide physical and financial facilities
to develop the start-up enterprises for their R&D activities.
Pursuant to the Technology Development Zones Law, the leading
company of a technopark is obligated to take measures in order to
provide the establishment of business incubators in the technoparks
and it may benefit from the grants under certain conditions which
may be provided by the Ministry of Science, Industry and
Technology. Apart from these facilities, it is possible to
establish venture capital funds and to provide venture capital to
the companies in business incubator centers. Moreover, there are
diverse foundations and institutions which provide grants to the
start-up enterprises in these areas for their R&D activities.
Even if the incubators are similar to other investment types, they
differ from the other investment types in that regard, that they
facilitate and provide access to several financial and physical
possibilities to start-up enterprises such as consultancy about
venture capital funds, about access to other financial resources
and providing office equipments.
Current statistics and future expectations
Technopark establishment movements have started with the Silicon
Valley in USA and recently, there are more than 800 technoparks in
operation in the world. In Turkey, technopark establishments have
been started in 1990's and as from 2013, there are more than 45
technoparks located in different cities in Turkey and most of them
have been put into operation. According to the statistics, there
are approximately 1000 companies located in the technoparks and
3000 projects as of 2008. Most preferred sectors in technoparks in
Turkey are aviation, energy, industrial softwares, electronics and
chemicals. Apart from the mixed technoparks, also establishment of
specialized technoparks have been planned. It is planned to
duplicate the number of the technoparks in Turkey until 2023.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.
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The High Court held, in The Software Incubator v Computer Associates, that a supply of commoditised software is a sale of goods for the purposes of the Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993.
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