Turkey: Change In Turkey’s Domain Name System: Registration Through TRABIS And Resolution Of Domain Name Disputes Through Arbitration

The first winds of change in Turkey's domain name system dates back to 2008 when the authority to allocate and manage Internet domain names was transferred from Computer Center of the Middle East Technical University to the Ministry of Transport through Article 35 of the Electronic Communications Law. The first action taken by the Ministry of Transport and Communications was to enact a Regulation on Domain Names (the "Regulation") in 2010 for the purposes of regulating principles and procedures regarding management of the ".tr" country code top-level Internet domain names.

The Regulation introduced two major changes to Turkey's Domain Name System: (i) Creation of the .tr Network Information System (the "TRABIS") with respect to registration of domain names; and (ii) Creation of an alternative dispute resolution (the "ADR") mechanism for the resolution of domain name disputes. For the latter, a Draft Communiqué on the Operation of Dispute Resolution Mechanism Related to Internet Domain Names and Dispute Resolution Service Providers (the "Draft Communiqué") has been prepared by examining ADR practices around the world and, in particular, the practices of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Opinions of public institutions, civil society organizations, universities, and other stakeholders were also obtained in the process. Timing-wise, we are awaiting the activation of the TRABIS, and for the Draft Communiqué to be published on 7 November 2012.

Under the Draft Communiqué, the TRABIS is defined as the system wherein the technical functions of the registry are operated. Persons who wish to register a domain name will have to choose one of the registrars listed on the web page of the Information Technology Authority (the "Authority"). After they choose the Authority for application, they will then have to complete the application form on the web page of the registrar they choose. Registrars are entities who carry out processes such as registration, renewal and cancellation of domain names, and are audited by the Authority. By creating the TRABIS and the registrars, the Draft Communiqué aims to facilitate the registration of domain names, implement the first-come-first-served ideal (the fundamental principle of registration of non-documentary domain names in Turkey), increase the number of registrars, and form a more competitive market. Therefore, the domain name registration which is currently in the hands of only a single authority will be distributed amongst many registrars who will then register the domain names through one system, the TRABIS. In short order, requirements of the registrars, the rules to be observed, and other issues will be determined by the Authority. Within this context, the Authority is conducting a survey to consider the needs of the global Internet community, and is inviting the existing and potential ".tr" registrars to share their opinions.

With the creation of the ADR mechanism, another change brought forward by the Regulation and the Draft Communiqué, Dispute Resolution Service Providers (the "DRSPs"), will be an expeditious alternative to intellectual property courts in the resolution of domain name disputes while, on the

other hand, they will not block the way to the courts. The DRSPs will be institutions that volunteer to commit themselves to operate towards the resolution of domain name disputes through their list of arbitrators that includes at least 10 persons who have expertise in IP rights, trademark law, commercial law or informatics law.

Potential disputes may either be resolved by a sole arbitrator, or by an arbitral tribunal comprised of three arbitrators, depending on the agreement of the parties. In any event, it will be the DRSP who will appoint the arbitrator(s). Thus far, the Middle East Technical University that constituted the authority to register domain names in the past, the Turkish Bar Association, and the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges in Turkey are expected to volunteer to operate as DRSPs.

Within the meaning of the Regulation, a domain name dispute that may be resolved by the ADR Mechanism must have occurred in the following instances: (i) The disputed domain name is similar, or has the same trademark, business name, company name or any other identifying marks; (ii) The owner of the domain name has no rights or legitimate interests in respect of it; and (iii) The domain name has been registered or is being used in bad faith. If all of these conditions exist, injured parties may freely choose a DSRP and file a complaint. However, the complainant may not apply to another DRSP concerning the same dispute until the DRSP that received the initial complaint declares its final decision. The final decision of the arbitrator or the arbitral tribunal may be the (i) deregistration and removal of the disputed domain name in favor of the complainant, (ii) transfer of the domain name to the complainant, or (iii) dismissal of the complaint.

In conclusion, with the Draft Communiqué and its newly established systems, such as the TRABIS, registration and follow-up of domain names in Turkey will become similar to the practices in the US and Europe, and disputes arising from the registration of domain names might be resolved in a much more effective way.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.