Mexico: 在墨西哥经商的十大挑战

Last Updated: 27 November 2017
Article by TMF Group

墨西哥为投资商和企业提供了无限商机,让其他新兴市场望洋兴叹。但在墨西哥开展业务也许会耗时许久,因此,掌握一些有关当地的知识是不可或缺的先决条件。

曾经的墨西哥暴力泛滥、腐败滋生,现在已转变为机遇之国。墨西哥政府完善了基础设施,在交通、能源、电信领域营造了竞争环境,提升了自身对投资者的吸引力。它如今已是世界第15大经济体,其购买力居于世界第11位。根据普华永道国际会计事务所最近的预估报告,墨西哥在2050年将会跃居世界第7大经济体,位居邻国巴西和美国之后。

墨西哥所做的其中一个最大改变是其贸易政策。通过打开国门,墨西哥已经发展成为一个全球性生产基地,与南北美洲的消费经济体建立了密切联系。此外,在过去十年里,中国工厂的人力成本不断上涨,而墨西哥的劳动力价格始终保持稳定。

但是在 墨西哥经商仍需克服很多障碍,跨国企业通常会被其法律和财政系统弄得晕头转向。因此,对当地投资环境的了解以及对法律、财政、税收框架的熟知,对任何跨国企业来说都极具价值。以下是在墨西哥经商的十大挑战:

一、开办企业

在墨西哥开办企业曾经极度复杂,雷区遍布。由于政府的努力,现在的流程已大为简化。根据世界银行和国际金融公司的评定,在墨西哥开办企业的简易度位居世界第47位。然而,对于不熟悉环境的企业来说,仍有几个环节比较棘手,尤其是在墨西哥社会保障局(IMSS)进行注册登记。

二、施工许可

施工许可的办理需要经过13道程序,耗时81天,这大致符合经济合作与发展组织的标准,但是却远超拉美国家和加勒比国家的平均效率。水源和下水道连接许可申请将花费大半时间,平均约需1个月——而要获取一个单独的说明土地特定用途和可用性的土地使用分区管制证书,也是相当复杂。

三、获取电力 

根据世界银行和国际金融公司的评定,在墨西哥获取电力的简易度位居世界第98位,说明了这一流程的困难程度。这一流程需要应对许多体制官僚弊病,在承包商实施作业之前,企业必须提交申请表,获取墨西哥联邦电力委员会 (CFE) 颁发的证书,接受其审查。

四、资产注册

资产注册是一个漫长而艰辛的工作,经济合作与发展组织国家的资产注册平均只需22日,在墨西哥却需要46日。联邦分区公共资产注册事宜有时格外耗时,取得提供水服务和土地使用分区管制的存续证明书也需要一些时间。

五、取得信贷

墨西哥金融领域的良好发展为信贷的获取提供了便利,但与大多数发达国家相比,仍然相对困难。

六、投资商保护

尽管北美自由贸易协定 (NAFTA) 在解决国内固有问题方面起了突出作用,投资商保护在墨西哥仍然具有争议。

七、缴税

在墨西哥,缴税是一个复杂流程,尽管只有6个应缴税项,每年仍需耗费286个小时。30%的企业所得税就需要122个小时,增值税申报和社保缴款也耗时很久。

八、跨境交易

墨西哥跨境交易的附加费用高昂,远高于南美和加勒比国家的平均水平。进口费用是每集装箱450美元,出口费用是每集装箱400美元。移动集装箱也很耗时,进口和出口平均耗时20天。

九、合同履约和破产处理

合同履约极其复杂,包含38个流程,需要350天的时间。而另一方面,破产处理却极其简化,只需1.8年,而其他南美和加勒比国家则需3.1年。

十、文化

会议进展缓慢,交易等重要议题都放在会议最后进行讨论,这是典型的墨西哥商业文化。执行层次和公司其他各层次间差别巨大,决策通常不经董事会,而是由一人制定。

想知道更多关于在墨西哥经商的资讯?按此注册参加《在墨西哥经商》的网络研讨会,我们在墨西哥的专家会为您介绍中国企业在墨西哥经商的合规要求,以及其他与在墨业务扩张相关的关键信息。

日期:2017年11月7日,星期二
时间:北京时间 上午10:00
时长:40分钟
语言:英文(同时提供中文版本的PPT)

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Originally published 2017 11 01

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