Mexico: México y China, Perspectivas Distintas En Innovación

Last Updated: 12 May 2017
Article by Ivan Martínez

El 26 de abril se conmemora el día mundial de la propiedad intelectual. En un país en desarrollo, como el nuestro, vale la pena preguntarse: ¿el sistema de Propiedad Intelectual (PI) en México cumple con el objetivo de lograr incentivar la innovación en nuestro país?

Realicemos un breve comparativo entre los resultados del sistema de protección de PI en México y el de China, considerando datos oficiales nacionales e internacionales.

En México el organismo encargado de vigilar la aplicación del sistema de PI es el Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial (IMPI), su equivalente en China es la Oficina Gubernamental de Propiedad Intelectual (SIPO, por sus siglas en inglés), mientras que a nivel internacional existe la Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual (OMPI), organismo especializado de Naciones Unidas  que tiene entre sus objetivos(1)  simplificar el trámite de registro de patentes y marcas en el extranjero por medio de la estandarización de procedimientos de evaluación.

Cada año el IMPI, la SIPO y la OMPI publican sus cifras de desempeño anual. Al analizar el periodo 2011-2015, se observa una discreta participación de solicitantes mexicanos tanto en mercados locales como internacionales, así como la falta de vinculación entre instituciones educativas e industria privada en nuestro país, situación invertida para el caso de China.

El interés de particulares nacionales en invertir en mercados locales, puede ser medido por la cantidad de solicitudes de patente presentadas en su propio territorio, en el caso de México en el periodo en revisión se presentaron 79,019 solicitudes, de las cuales 8% corresponde a solicitantes nacionales, en contraste para el mismo periodo en China, en donde 85% de las 4,034,366 solicitudes presentadas son de titulares de origen chino.

Es natural pensar que el tamaño de la población podría ser un factor responsable del contraste en la cantidad de solicitudes de nacionales(2) . Al hacer una ponderación, tenemos que en México se presentó en promedio una solicitud de patente por cada 100,000 habitantes por año, mientras que en el caso de China se tiene un promedio de 50 solicitudes por cada 100,000 habitantes. Para el caso de México, el mayor interés para la obtención de documentos de patentes proviene de titulares extranjeros.

En años anteriores, existió entre profesionales de PI la percepción de que la SIPO era permisiva con titulares locales, facilitándoles la concesión de patentes. Al realizar un comparativo entre la tasa de concesión a titulares locales, tenemos que la SIPO concedió en promedio 24% de las solicitudes locales presentadas en ese periodo, mientras que el IMPI concedió 23% de las presentadas por mexicanos. Este dato muestra que no existen mayores consideraciones por parte de la SIPO a titulares locales a las otorgadas por el IMPI.

Además del interés en el mercado local, la información publicada por la OMPI hace posible conocer el interés de titulares mexicanos y chinos en extender la protección de sus invenciones al extranjero. El Tratado de Cooperación en materia de Patentes (PCT) permite facilitar la extensión de derechos de patente a países miembros. En el periodo en revisión se presentaron 1,351 solicitudes de patente PCT de titulares mexicanos, mientras que se presentaron 111,927 solicitudes PCT de chinos. Entre los principales solicitantes mexicanos se encuentran la UNAM, el CINVESTAV y la UAEH, mientras que por parte de los chinos destacan las empresas Huawei, ZTE y BOE.

En México los principales interesados en la extensión de derechos de PI en el extranjero son entidades educativas, con el objetivo de licenciar sus patentes a empresas privadas, apoyar la formación de empresas nacionales o recibir apoyos gubernamentales asignados con base a indicadores de innovación; mientras que en China es la industria privada la principal interesada en proteger sus invenciones en el extranjero con el objetivo de extender su mercado.

Estos datos deben de entenderse como un éxito del sistema chino de transferencia de tecnología, en donde las empresas locales se encuentran vinculadas a centros educativos y son partícipes en la definición de objetivos académicos y de investigación.

El alto porcentaje de empresas extranjeras solicitantes de patente en México puede ser visto como un indicador del interés en participar e invertir en el mercado nacional, lo que aumenta la cantidad de productos disponibles para consumidores locales. Sin embargo, es imposible dejar de observar que en el largo plazo, la falta de participación de nacionales en temas de innovación ha llevado a la situación actual de alto consumismo y baja innovación en nuestro país.

Con base en los datos, resulta evidente que el sistema de patentes en México ha sido mejor aprovechado por actores extranjeros que nacionales.

El 26 de abril, es importante tener presente la importancia de la vinculación entre centros de investigación y empresas privadas mexicanas, y por medio de este mecanismo se incentive el desarrollo económico local, así como la presencia de tecnologías de mexicanos en los mercados nacional y extranjero.

Footnotes

1 Lo mencionado en la oración corresponde a uno de varios objetivos de la OMPI y no puede ser interpretado como único/principal objetivo

2 El enunciado se refiere a solicitudes presentadas por nacionales, sin considerar solicitudes de extranjeros


Clarke, Modet & Co


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