The administration of Italy's air navigation sector is
guaranteed by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC), the
National Agency for the Safety of Flight (ANSV) and by the Aero
Club of Italy (AeCI). The management of air navigation in its
operational profiles has been referred to ENAC.
ENAC is the primary agency entrusted with the responsibility of
regulating aviation in Italy, as provided by Article 687 of the
Italian Navigation Code (INC) and Legislative Decree No. 250/97.
ENAC is the competent authority for supervision and regulation of
air carriers and has power to impose fines for breach of
regulations. In particular, ENAC is responsible for imposing fines
on airlines that are in breach of Regulation 261/2004. Moreover,
the Passenger's Charter and the Charter of Airport Standard
Services have been promulgated by ENAC. The Passenger's Charter
is practically a vade mecum of national, European and
international regulation on air passenger protection, detailing the
claims and compensation procedures available to passengers in case
of non-compliance with the above regulation. The Charter of Airport
Standard Services sets out the minimum quality standards airport
operators are bound to comply with in providing their services.
In addition, Legislative Decree No. 201/2011 (the Salva Italia
Decree), subsequently amended by Legislative Decree No. 1/2012 (the
liberalisation decree), established the Regulatory Transport
Authority (the Authority). The Authority carries out important
functions in regulation, promotion and ensuring fair competition in
the transport sector. Included among these functions is the
Authority's responsibility for ensuring fair conditions of
access and non-discriminatory access to airports, and movement of
passengers and goods at national level. The Authority performs
supervisory functions regarding airport charges. Another of the
Authority's roles is to verify that tender notices do not
contain discriminatory conditions or obstruct other market
competitors. The first board of the Authority was appointed by
Presidential Decree dated 9 August 2013, published partially in the
Italian Official Journal (dated 16 September 2013). The Authority
has established its main offices in Turin.
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It is common practice for traders, usually when they are the sellers of the goods and the charterers of a vessel, to instruct the carrier to discharge cargoes without production of the original bills of lading and to agree to indemnify the carrier against the consequences of doing so.
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