India: Labor Laws In India - (Indian) Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

Article by Sulekha Kaul, Principal Associate, Vaish Associates Advocates
Phone: +91 11 42492516 Email: sulekha@vaishlaw.com

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (the "ID Act") has been enacted for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes in any industrial establishment.

The Industrial Disputes Act defines "Industrial dispute" as a dispute or difference between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour. Dismissal of an individual workman is deemed to be an industrial dispute.

The ID Act provides for the constitution of the Works Committee, consisting of employers and workmen, to promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and the workmen and, to that end, endeavours to resolve any material difference of opinion in respect of such matters.

The ID Act provides for the appointment of Conciliation Officers, Board of Conciliation, Courts of Inquiry, Labour Courts, Tribunals, and National Tribunals for settlement of disputes. Another method recognised for settlement of disputes is through arbitration. The Industrial disputes Act provides a legalistic way of settling disputes. The goal of preventive machinery as provided under the Act is to create an environment where the disputes do not arise at all. The ID Act prohibits unfair labour practices which are defined in the Fifth Schedule—strikes and lockouts (except under certain defined conditions and with proper notice). It also provides for penalties for illegal strikes and lockouts and unfair labour practices and provisions regarding lay off and retrenchment as well as compensation payable thereof.

The ID Act provides that an employer who intends to close down an industrial establishment shall obtain prior permission at least ninety days before the date on which he intends to close down the industrial establishment, giving the reasons thereof.

Trade Unions Act, 1926

The Trade Unions Act, 1926 (the "Trade Unions Act") seeks to provide for the registration of Trade Unions in India and for the protection of the same. Further, the Trade Unions Act also in certain respects defines the law relating to registered Trade Unions like mode of registration, application for registration, provisions to be contained in the rules of a Trade Union, minimum requirement for membership of a Trade Union, rights and liabilities of registered Trade Unions, etc.

LAWS RELATING TO WAGES IN INDIA

Minimum Wages Act, 1948

The Minimum Wages Act, 1948 (the Minimum Wages Act) provides for fixing of minimum rates of wages in certain employments. The minimum wages are prescribed by States through notifications in the State's Gazette under the Minimum Wages Rules of the specific State.

In terms of the provisions of the Minimum Wages Act, an employee means (i) any person who is employed for hire or reward to do any work, skilled or unskilled manual or clerical, in a scheduled employment in respect of which minimum rates of wages have been fixed; (ii) an outworker, to whom any articles or materials are given out by another person to be made up, cleaned, washed, altered, ornamented, finished, repaired, adapted or otherwise processed for sale for the purposes of the trade or business of that other person; and (iii) an employee declared to be an employee by the appropriate Government.

The term "wages" has been defined to mean all remuneration capable of being expressed in terms of money which would, if the terms of the contract of employment express or implied were fulfilled, be payable to a person employed in respect of his employment or work done in such an employment and includes house rent allowance but does not include:

  1. The value of:

    1. Any house accommodation or supply of light, water and medical attendance; or
    2. Any other amenity or any service excluded by general or special order of the appropriate Government;
  2. Any contribution paid by the employer to any personal fund or provident fund or under any scheme of social insurance;
  3. Any travelling allowance or the value of any travelling concession;
  4. Any sum paid to the person employed to defray special expenses entailed on him by the nature of his employment; or
  5. Any gratuity payable on discharge.

Further, the Minimum Wages Act requires the employer to pay to every employee engaged in schedule employment wages at a rate not less than minimum rates of wages as fixed by a notification without any deduction (other than prescribed deductions, if any).

Payment of Wages Act, 1936

The Payment of Wages Act, 1936 (the Payment of Wages Act) is an Act to regulate the payment of wages to certain classes of employed persons. The Payment of Wages Act seeks to ensure that the employers make a timely payment of wages to the employees working in the establishments and to prevent unauthorized deductions from the wages.

According to the Payment of Wages Act, all wages shall be in current coin or currency notes or in both. It is, however, provided that the employer may, after obtaining the written authorisation of the employed person, pay him the wages either by cheque or by crediting the wages in his bank account.

Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 (the "Bonus Act") provides for the payment of bonus to persons employed in certain establishments in India either on the basis of profits or on the basis of production or productivity and is applicable to every establishment in which 20 or more persons are employed and to all employees drawing a remuneration of less than Rs 10,000. Those employees who have worked for less than thirty days are not eligible to receive bonus under the Bonus Act. The Bonus Act provides for the payment of bonus between 8.33% (minimum) to 20% (maximum). However, for the calculation of bonus, a maximum salary of Rs 3,500 is considered.

LAWS RELATING TO SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIA

Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (the "EPF Act") provides for the institution of provident funds, pension funds, and deposit-linked insurance funds for employees and applies to all establishments employing 20 or more persons or class of persons. An establishment to which the EPF Act applies shall continue to be governed by this Act, notwithstanding that the number of persons employed therein at any time falls below 20.

On account of 2014 Amendment to the said Act, The definition of "excluded employee" has been amended whereby the members drawing wages exceeding Rs 15,000 per month have been excluded from the provisions of the PF Scheme. Accordingly, the wage ceiling for an employee to be eligible for the PF Scheme has been increased from Rs 6,500 per month to Rs 15,000 per month. It further provides that every employee employed in or in connection with the work of a factory or other establishment is required to become a member of the Provident Fund.

The 2014 Amendment further lays down the following changes:

  1. New members (joining on or after 1 September 2014) drawing wages above Rs 15,000 per month shall not be eligible to voluntarily contribute to the Pension Scheme.
  2. The pensionable salary shall be calculated on the average monthly pay for the contribution period of the last 60 months (earlier 12 months) preceding the date of exit from the membership.
  3. The monthly pension for any existing or future member shall not be less than Rs 1,000 for the financial year 2014-2015.
  4. The contribution payable under the Insurance Scheme shall also be calculated on a monthly pay of Rs 15,000, instead of Rs 6,500.
  5. In the event of death of a member (on or after 1 September 2014), the assurance benefits available under the Insurance Scheme has been increased by twenty percent (20%) in addition to the already admissible benefits.

Contributions to the Provident Fund are to be made at the rate of 12% of the wages by the employers with the employee contributing an equal amount. The employee may voluntarily contribute a higher amount but the employer is not obliged to contribute more than the prescribed amount. Further, the EPF Act contains provisions for transfer of accumulations in case of change of employment.

In terms of power conferred under s 143(11) of the Companies Act, 2013, the Central Government has issued the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2015 (CARO), which came into force on 10 April, 2015. Clause (vii) (a) of Paragraph 3 provides that:

The [Statutory] Auditor has to report, inter alia, on the following:

  1. Is the company regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues, eg, Provident Fund, Investor Education and Protection Fund, Employees' State Insurance, income tax, wealth tax, service tax, sales tax, customs duty, excise duty, cess and any other statutory duties with the appropriate authorities?
  2. If not paid regularly, the extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable, then it shall be indicated in the report.
  3. If such non-payment of dues is on account of any dispute, then the amount involved and for the forum where the dispute is pending should also be mentioned.

The CARO is, however, not applicable to a banking company, an insurance company, s 8 company, one person company, small companies and certain class of private companies, as specified under the CARO.

Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948

The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (the ESI Act) is a social welfare legislation enacted with the objective of providing certain benefits to employees in case of sickness, maternity and employment injury. In terms of the provisions of the ESI Act, the eligible employees will receive medical relief, cash benefits, maternity benefits, pension to dependants of deceased workers and compensation for fatal or other injuries and diseases. It is applicable to establishments where 10 or more persons are employed. All employees, including casual, temporary or contract employees drawing wages less than Rs 15,000 per month, are covered under the ESI Act. This limit has been increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 15,000 w.e.f. May 1, 2010.

The Government enacted as the Employees' State Insurance (Amendment) Act, 2010 (No.18 of 2010). All the provisions of the ESI (Amendment) Act 2010 (except s 18) have come into effect from June 1, 2010. The salient features of the ESI (Amendment) Act are as under:

  • facilitating coverage of smaller factories;
  • enhancing age limit of dependent children for eligibility to dependants benefit;
  • extending medical benefit to dependant minor brother/sister in case of insured persons not having own family and whose parents are also not alive;
  • streamlining the procedure for assessment of dues from defaulting employers;
  • providing an Appellate Authority within the ESI Corporation against assessment to avoid unnecessary litigation;
  • continuing medical benefit to insured persons retiring under VRS scheme or taking premature retirement;
  • treating commuting accidents as employment injury;
  • streamlining the procedure for grant of exemptions;
  • third party participation in commissioning and running of the hospitals;
  • opening of medical/ dental/ paramedical/ nursing colleges to improve quality of medical care;
  • making an enabling provision for extending medical care to other beneficiaries against payment of user charges to facilitate providing of medical care from under utilised ESI Hospitals to the BPL families covered under the Rashtriya Swasthaya Bima Yojana introduced by the Ministry of Labour & Employment w.e.f. 1.4.2008;
  • reducing duration of notice period for extension of the Act to new classes of establishments from six months to one month;
  • empowering State Governments to set up autonomous Corporations for administering medical benefit in the States for bringing autonomy and efficiency in the working.

The employer should get his factory or establishment registered with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) within 15 days after the Act becomes applicable to it, and obtain the employer's code number.

The employer is required to contribute at the rate of 4.75% of the wages paid/ payable in respect of every wage period. The employees are also required to contribute at the rate of 1.75% of their wages.

It is the responsibility of the employer to deposit such contributions (employer's and employees') in respect of all employees (including the contract labour) into the ESI account.

Labour Welfare Fund Act (of respective States)

The [State] Labour Welfare Fund Act provides for the constitution of the Labour Welfare Fund to promote and carry out various activities conducive to the welfare of labour in the State so as to ensure full and appropriate utilisation of the Fund.

Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (the Gratuity Act) applies to (i) every factory, mine, oilfield, plantation, port and railway company; (ii) every shop or establishment within the meaning of any law, for the time being in force, in relation to shops and establishments in a State, in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months; and (iii) such other establishments or classes of establishments, in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

The Gratuity Act provides for a scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories, mines, oilfields, plantations, ports, railway companies, shops or other establishments. The Gratuity Act enforces the payment of "gratuity", a reward for long service, as a statutory retiral benefit.

Every employee, who has completed continuous service of five years or more, irrespective of his wages, is entitled to receive gratuity upon termination of his employment, on account of (i) superannuation; or (ii) retirement; or (iii) death or disablement due to accident or disease. However, the completion of continuous service of five years shall not be necessary where the termination of employment of any employee is due to death or disablement.

The gratuity is payable even to an employee who resigns after completing at least five years of service.

The gratuity is payable at the rate of fifteen days wages for every year of completed service, subject to an aggregate amount of Rupees ten lacs only. However, if an employee has the right to receive higher gratuity under a contract or under an award, then the employee is entitled to get higher gratuity.

LAWS RELATING TO WORKING HOURS, CONDITIONS OF SERVICE AND EMPLOYMENT

Factories Act, 1948

The Factories Act, 1948 (the Factories Act) lays down provisions for the health, safety, welfare and service conditions of workmen working in factories. It contains provisions for working hours of adults, employment of young persons, leaves, overtime, etc. It applies to all factories employing more than 10 people and working with the aid of power, or employing 20 people and working without the aid of power. It covers all workers employed in the factory premises or precincts directly or through an agency including a contractor, involved in any manufacture. Some provisions of the Act may vary according to the nature of work of the establishment.

Some Major provisions of the Factories Act are explained below:

  1. Section 11 of the Act provides that every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance. Section 13 of the Act focuses on ventilation and temperature maintenance at workplace. Every factory should work on proper arrangements for adequate ventilation and circulation of fresh air.
  2. Section 18 of the Act specifies regarding arrangements for sufficient and pure drinking water for the workers.
  3. Section 19 further mentions that in every factory there should be sufficient accommodation for urinals which should be provided at conveniently situated place. It should be kept clean and maintained.
  4. Section 21 of the Act provides from proper fencing of machinery. And that any moving part of the machinery or machinery that is dangerous in kind should be properly fenced
  5. Further s 45 of the said Act specifies that every factory should have a properly maintained and well equipped first aid box or cupboard with the prescribed contents. For every 150 workers employed at one time, there shall not be less than 1 first aid box in the factory. Also in case where there are more than 500 workers there should be well maintained ambulance room of prescribed size and containing proper facility.

Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946

The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 (the IESO Act) is applicable to every industrial establishment wherein 100 or more workmen are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months. The IESO Act Amis to bring uniform terms and conditions of service in various industrial establishments. The IESO Act requires every employer in an industrial establishment to clearly define and publish standing orders with respect to conditions of employment / service rules and to make them known to the workmen employed by it. The Act further specifies that every employer is required to submit to the Certifying Officer five draft copies of the standing orders which he intends to adopt for his establishment.

Further, the IESO Act requires display of standing orders in a prominent place for the knowledge of workers.

Shops and Commercial Establishments Act (of respective States)

The Shops and Commercial Establishments Act(s) of the respective States generally contain provisions relating to registration of an establishment, working hours, overtime, leave, privilege leave, notice pay, working conditions for women employees, etc. The provisions of the Shops and Commercial Establishments Act apply to both white collar and blue-collar employees. IT and IT-enabled services have been given relaxations by various State Governments in respect of the observance of certain provisions of their respective Shops and Commercial Establishments Act.

Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970

The main objectives of the Contract Labour (Regulations & Abolition) Act, 1970 (the Contract Labour Act) are: (i) to prohibit the employment of contract labour; and (ii) to regulate the working conditions of the contract labour, wherever such employment is not prohibited.

The Act defines a "worker" as a workman who shall be deemed to be employed as "contract labour" in or in connection with the work of an establishment when he is hired in or in connection with such work by or through a contractor, with or without the knowledge of the principal employer.

The Contract Labour Act regulates the employment of contract labour in certain establishments and provides for its abolition in certain circumstances. It applies to every establishment or contractor wherein/with whom 20 or more workmen are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months as contract labour. The Government may, however, by notification in the Official Gazette, make the provisions of the Contract Labour Act applicable to establishments or contractor employing less than 20 workmen.

The Contract Labour Act is not applicable to establishments in which work only of an intermittent or casual nature is performed.

The Contract Labour Act prohibits the employment of contract labour on jobs that are perennial in nature. For such jobs, permanent employees need to be employed.

The Contract Labour Act provides that no contractor shall undertake any work through contract labour, except under and in accordance with a licence issued in that behalf by the licensing officer.

In terms of s 7 of the Contract Labour Act, the principal employer has to make an application in the prescribed form accompanied by the prescribed fee payable to the registering officer for registration.

The Employee's Compensation Act, 1923 (formally known as "The Workmen Compensation Act, 1923")

The Employee's Compensation Act, 1923 (the EC Act) aims to provide financial protection to workmen and their dependents in case of any accidental injury arising out of or in course of employment and causing either death or disablement of the worker by means of compensation.

This Act applies to factories, mines, docks, construction establishments, plantations, oilfields and other establishments listed in Schedules II and III of the said Act, but excludes establishments covered by the ESI Act.

The Act provides for payment of compensation by the employer to the employees covered under this Act for injury caused by accident. Generally, companies take insurance policies to cover their liability under the EC Act.

Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979

The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 (the ISMW Act) is an Act to regulate the employment of inter-state migrant workmen and to provide for the conditions of service and for matters connected therewith.

The ISMW Act applies to (i) any establishment in which five or more inter-state migrant workmen are employed or who were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months; and (ii) every contractor who employs or who employed five or more inter-state migrant workmen on any day of the preceding twelve months.

For the purpose of the ISMW Act, an inter-state migrant workman means any person who is recruited by or through a contractor in one state under an agreement or other arrangement for employment in an establishment in another state, whether with or without the knowledge of the principal employer in relation to such an establishment.

Weekly Holiday Act, 1942

The Weekly Holiday Act, 1942 provides for the grant of weekly holidays to persons employed in shops, restaurants and theatres. The Act provides that every shop shall remain entirely closed on one day of the week, which day shall be specified by the shop-keeper in a notice permanently exhibited in a conspicuous place in the shop. Further the state government may require in respect of shops or any specified class of shops that they shall be closed at such hour in the afternoon of one week-day in every week in addition to weekly day off.

The Plantation Labour Act, 1951

The Plantations Labour Act (PLA) seeks to provide for the welfare of labour and to regulate the conditions of workers in plantations. This Act empowers the State Governments to take all feasible steps to improve the lot of the plantation workers. The passing of PLA has helped in creating conditions for organising the workers and the rise of trade unions.

The Act defines an employer as, the person who has the ultimate control over the affairs of the plantation and where the affairs of the plantation are entrusted to any other person, such other person shall be the employer in relation to that plantation.

Plantation: Any plantation to which this Act applies and includes offices, hospitals, dispensaries, schools and any other premises used for any purposes connected with such plantation.

The Act makes it mandatory for every employer to get their plantation registered within 60 days of its coming into existence.

The Mines Act, 1952

The Mines Act, 1952 (Mines Act) aims to secure safety and health and welfare of workers working in the mines. "Mine" is defined under the Mines Act as a place where any excavation work is carried on for the searching and obtaining of minerals.

The Mines Act provides that persons working in the mine should not be less than 18 years of age.

The Mines Act lays down provisions for appointment of one chief inspector who would be regulating all the territories in which mining is done and an inspector for every mine who would be sub ordinate to the chief inspector. Moreover, the District Magistrate is also empowered to perform the duties of an inspector subject to the orders of the Central Government. The chief inspector or any of the inspectors may make such inquiry, at any time whether day or night, in order to check whether the law is being abided in the mines or not.

LAWS RELATING TO EQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 provides for the payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for the same work and prevents discrimination, on the ground of sex, against women in the matter of employment, recruitment and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. This Act applies to virtually every kind of establishment.

Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (Maternity Benefit Act) regulates the employment of women in certain establishments for a certain period before and after childbirth and provides for maternity benefits and certain other benefits including maternity leave, wages, bonus, nursing breaks, etc, to women employees.

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 applies to (a) a factory, mine or plantation including any such establishment belonging to Government and to every establishment wherein persons are employed for the exhibition of equestrian, acrobatic and other performances; (b) every shops or establishments within the meaning of any law for the time being in force in relation to shops and establishments in a State, in which ten or more persons are employed, or were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months.

Except for s 5A and 5B, the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act shall not apply to the employees who are covered under the Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 for certain periods before and after child-birth and for which the ESI Act provides for maternity and other benefits. The coverage under the ESI Act is, however, at present restricted to factories and certain other specified categories of establishments located in specified areas. The Maternity Benefit Act is, therefore, still applicable to women employees employed in establishments which are not covered by the ESI Act, as also to women employees, employed in establishments covered by the ESI Act, but who are out of its coverage because of the wage-limit.

Under the Maternity Benefit Act, an employer has to give paid leave to a woman worker for six weeks immediately following the day of her delivery or miscarriage and two weeks following a tubectomy operation. The maximum period for which a woman shall be entitled to maternity benefit shall be 12 weeks, of which not more than six weeks shall precede the date of her expected delivery.

A pregnant woman is also entitled to request her employer not to give her work of arduous nature or which involves long hours of standing, etc, during the period of one month immediately preceding the date of her expected delivery or any period during the said period of six weeks for which the woman does not avail leave of absence. When a woman absents herself from work in accordance with the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act, it shall be unlawful for her employer to discharge or dismiss her during or on account of such absence.

PROHIBITIVE LABOUR LAWS

Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976

The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 ( Bonded Labour Abolition Act) is a prohibiting legislation which provides for the abolition of the bonded labour system with a view to prevent the economic and physical exploitation of the weaker sections of the society, and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Under the Bonded Labour Abolition Act, the term "bonded labour" has been defined to mean any labour or service rendered under the bonded labour system.

The term "bonded labour system" has been defined to mean the system of, forced or partly forced, labour under which a debtor enters or has, or is presumed to have, entered into an agreement with the creditor to the effect that:

  1. In consideration of an advance obtained by him or by any of his lineal ascendants or descendants (whether or not such advance is evidenced by the document) and in consideration of the interest, if any, due on such advance; or
  2. In pursuance of any customary or social obligation; or
  3. In pursuance of any obligation devolving on him by succession; or
  4. For any economic consideration received by him or by any of his lineal ascendants or descendants; or
  5. By reason of his birth in any particular caste or community.

The debtor would render, by himself or through any member of his family, or any person dependent on him, labour or service, to the creditor, or for the benefit of the creditor, for a specific period or for an unspecified period, either without wages or for nominal wages.

Section 3 of the Bonded Labour Abolition Act provides that the provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any enactment other than this Act or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any enactment other than this Act.

Section 20 of the Bonded Labour Abolition Act provides that whoever abets any offence punishable under this Act shall, whether or not the offence abetted is committed, be punishable with the same punishment as is provided for the offence which has been abetted. For the purpose of this Act, "abetment" has the meaning assigned to it in the Indian Penal Code.

Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986

The Constitution of India incorporates provisions to secure labour protection to children. It expressly prohibits the employment of a child below the age of 14 years in work in any factory or mine or engagement in any other hazardous employment.

The policy of the Government is to ban the employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines and hazardous employments and to regulate the working condition of children in other industries.

The Government enacted the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986 (the Child Labour Prohibition & Regulation Act), which prohibits the employment of children who have not completed their 14th year in 16 occupations and 65 processes1 like cinder picking, cleaning of ash pits, building operation, manufacturing or handling of pesticides and insecticides, and manufacturing of matches, explosives, fireworks, etc.

In addition, the Child Labour Prohibition & Regulation Act regulates the working conditions of children in all employments, which are not prohibited under the Act. It also fixes the number of hours and the period of work and requires the occupiers of establishments employing children to give notice to the local inspector and maintain the prescribed register.

Apart from the Child Labour Prohibition & Regulation Act, there are other legislations which also protect the interest of child labour. For example, the Factories Act, 1948 and the Mines Act, 1952 prohibit the employment of children below the age of 14 years. The Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933, makes an agreement to pledge the labour of children void.

Directions of the Supreme Court on the Issue of Elimination of Child Labour

In a landmark judgment on 10 December 1996, in the case of MC Mehta v State of Tamil Nadu (1996) 6 SCC 756 [Writ Petition (Civil) No. 465/1986], the Supreme Court of India gave certain directions on the issue of elimination of child labour. The main features of the judgment are as under:

  1. Survey for identification of working children;
  2. Withdrawal of children working in hazardous industry and ensuring their education in appropriate institutions;
  3. Contribution at the rate of Rs 20,000 per child to be paid by the offending employers of children to a welfare fund to be established for this purpose;
  4. Employment to one adult member of the family of the child so withdrawn from work and if that is not possible a contribution of Rs 5,000 to the welfare fund to be made by the State Government;
  5. Financial assistance to the families of the children so withdrawn to be paid out of the interest earnings on the corpus of Rs 20,000/25,000 deposited in the welfare fund, as long as the child is actually sent to a school; and
  6. Regulating hours of work for children working in non-hazardous occupations so that their working hours do not exceed six hours per day and education for at least two hours is ensured. The entire expenditure on education is to be borne by the concerned employer.

The implementation of the directions of the Hon'ble Supreme Court is being monitored by the Ministry of Labour and Employment and compliance with the directions has been reported in the form of affidavits on 5 December 1997, 21 December 1999, 4 December 2000, 4 July 2001 and 4 December 2003, to the Hon'ble Supreme Court on the basis of the information received from the State Governments/Union Territories.

The Government is committed to eliminate child labour in all its forms and is moving in this direction in a targeted manner.

Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prohibition, Prevention and Redressal) Act, 2013

The Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prohibition, Prevention and Redressal) Act, 2013 (SHW Act) was enacted by the Parliament to provide protection against sexual harassment of women at workplace and prevention and redressal of complaints of sexual harassment and for matters connected therewith.

The SHW Act makes it mandatory for every organization having 10 employees and more to constitute an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) to entertain complaints that may be made by an aggrieved women.

The SHW Act also incorporates provisions for formation of a Local Complaints Committee (LCC) in every district for entertaining complaints of sexual harassment at workplace from organisations where ICC has not been established due to having less than 10 employees.

The SHW Act provides that an aggrieved women may in writing make a compliant of sexual harassment to the ICC or LCC as the case may be within a period of three months from the date of occurrence of such incident. Further, in a case where the aggrieved woman is unable to make a complaint on account of her physical incapacity or Death, a complaint may be filed inter alia by her relative or legal heirs.

Footnote

[1] As last amended vide Notification No. S.O. 2280(E) dated 25 September 2008, issued by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (Child Labour Section).

© 2016, Vaish Associates Advocates,
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The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist professional advice should be sought about your specific circumstances. The views expressed in this article are solely of the authors of this article.

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Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Emails

From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.