India: Tax Reality Of Real Estate Trusts

Last Updated: 5 October 2016
Article by Gagan Kumar and Amit Kaushik

When the new government took over and assumed the office, it was anticipated that many path breaking decisions would be taken. Keeping the optimistic sentiments alive, the Honourable Finance Minister, while presenting the budget for the fiscal year 2014 – 15 introduced a long-awaited concept of retail funding in the real estate sector by way of introducing Real Estate Investment Trust ("REIT") and Infrastructure Investment Trust ("Invit") (collectively referred to as Business Trust). Accordingly, Securities and Exchange Board of India ("SEBI") issued SEBI (Infrastructure Investment Trusts) Regulations, 2014 (" SEBI Regulations") relating to these two new categories of investment vehicles.

A REIT is a trust that pools the capital of many investors to purchase immovable property. REITs are required to distribute 90% of their income earned during the financial year. The REIT structure has been designed to provide a similar structure for investment in real estate as mutual funds provide for investment in stocks.

Similarly, Invit is a pooling vehicle formed for the purpose of investment in infrastructure sector. These Business Trusts are required to be registered under the Registration Act, 1908.

The salient feature of these investment schemes are as follows:

  • Participants: The Business Trust shall have parties such as Trustee, Sponsor, Manager and Unit holders i.e. Investor. Sponsor is settlor of the trust which is managed by the Manager. Trustee is entrusted with the responsibilities of holding the properties on behalf of the investors. As per the SEBI Regulations, Sponsors are required to hold certain percentage of units in the trust at all times.
  • Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs):These business trusts can hold immovable properties either through SPVs or directly. The SPV can be a company or an LLP. Under the SEBI Regulations, SPV is defined to mean any company or LLP in which REIT holds or proposes to hold controlling interest which is not less than fifty percent of the equity share capital or interest. The SPV should hold at least 80% of the assets in properties and not invest in other SPV.
  • Listing: Units of Business Trusts are required to be listed on a recognised stock exchange.
  • Distribution: Under the SEBI regulations both the SPV and business trust are obligated to distribute 90% of their operating income to the investor.

Taxation Regime for the Business Trusts

Finance Act, 2014, has amended the Income Tax Act, 1961 ("the Act") to put in place a specific taxation regime for taxability of the income in the hands of the Trust, its Unit holders and Sponsors. Accordingly, amendment has been made in the Act by the introduction of new Chapter XII-FA, "Special Provisions relating to Business Trust". Further, clauses 23(FC) and 23(FD) have been introduced to section 10 of the Act to provide for various exemptions from income tax to the Business Trusts and its unit holders.

Section 2(13A) of the Act has been inserted to define the term Business Trust' to mean a Trust registered as an Invit or REIT, the units of which are required to be listed on a recognised stock exchange as per the SEBI regulations.

Further, some exemptions provided in the Act are available to these trusts only in respect of certain income when received through the SPVs.

The proposed amendments and their effect on each party to the trust are discussed below:

Taxation in the hands of unit holders

Capital Gain

The units of a Business Trust, when traded on a recognized stock exchange, would be subject to levy of Securities Transaction Tax ("STT") at the same rates as shares i.e.0.125%. In other words, units of the business trust are akin to the listed shares. Consequential amendments have been made in the section 10(38) and section 111A of the Act. Therefore, Long Term Capital Gains arising from trading of such units on a listed stock exchange , would be exempt from tax under section 10(38). Similarly, Short Term Capital Gains would be taxable @ 15% as per section 111A of the Act.

Distribution of Interest Income

Interest income received by the business trust from the Special Purpose Vehicle ("SPV") is also accorded a 'pass through' treatment i.e., there is no taxation of such interest income in the hands of the trust and no withholding tax at the level of SPV. In other words, any interest income distributed by the Trust shall be deemed to be income of the unit holders and will be chargeable to the tax in the hands of the unit holders. In other words, unit holders of the trust would be liable to pay tax on the any income distributed out of interest received by the trust from the SPVs. [Section 10(23FC) of the Act]

Further, Business Trusts are required to withhold tax at the rate of 10% when such interest income has to be distributed to resident unit holders. However, in the case of Non-resident unit holders, withholding is required to be made at a concessional rate of 5%. (Section 194LBA of the Act)

Distribution of Rental income arising from the assets held directly by REIT

In case of a business trust, being REITs, the income is predominantly in the nature of rental income. This rental income arises from the assets held directly by REIT or held by it through an SPV. The rental income received at the level of SPV gets passed through by way of interest or dividend to the REIT. Earlier the rental income directly received by the REIT is taxable at REIT level and does not get pass through benefit. However, Finance Act, 2015 provided that the distributed income or any part thereof, received by a unit holder from the REIT, which is in the nature of income byway of renting or leasing or letting out any real estate asset owned directly by such REIT, shall be deemed to be income of such unit holder and shall be charged to tax the REIT shall effect TDS on rental income allowed to be passed through. In case of resident unit holder, tax shall deducted @ 10%, and in case of distribution to non-resident unit holder, the tax shall be deducted at rate in force as applicable for deduction of tax on payment to the non-resident of any sum chargeable to tax.

Distribution of income other than interest & rental income arising from the assets held directly by REIT

All distributions out of income other than the interest income, received from the SPVs, made by the Business Trust to the Unit holders and rental income arising from the assets held directly by the Business Trust (i.e REIT) are exempt from the tax in the hands of unit holders, as per the provisions of section 10(23FD) of the Act.

Further, it may be noted that distribution of interest received from elsewhere i.e. not from SPVs is also exempt in the hands of the unit holders.

Taxation in the Hands of the Trust

Interest Income

Distribution of Interest income from the SPVs is accorded 'pass through' treatment. In other words, it is exempt in the hands of the Business Trusts but taxable in the hands of the Unit holders. However, no such exemption is provided in respect of interest received or receivable by the Business Trusts from the investments made by them directly.

Dividend Income

The dividend paid by the SPV to the Business Trust shall be subject to Dividend Distribution Tax ("DDT") as in the case of any other company. Therefore, dividend received by trust, if already charged to DDT, would be exempt in the hands of the Trust and its investors.

Further, Business Trusts are not liable to pay any DDT on its distribution of income to the Unit holders

Where the business trust either holds 100% of the share capital of the SPV or holds all of the share capital other than that which is required to be held by any other entity as part of any direction of any Government or specific requirement of any law to this effect or which is held by Government or Government bodies then in respect of assets held by the business trust through an SPV, if SPV is a company then the company shall be exempted from levy of DDT in respect of distributions made by SPV to the business trust and such dividend received by the business trust and its investor shall not be taxable in the hands of trust or investor.

Income from Capital Gains

The income by way of capital gains on disposal of assets by the trust (including the shares of SPVs itself) shall be taxable in the hands of the trust at the applicable rate. In other words, Capital gains shall be charged to tax at the rates which will differ with the nature of assets transferred i.e. Long Term or Short Term Capital Assets.

Taxability of Other Incomes

Any other income of the Business Trusts shall be charged to the tax at the maximum marginal rate.

Withholding of Taxes

Business Trusts are required to withhold tax at the rate of 10% when interest income received from SPVs has to be distributed to resident unit holders. However, in the case Non-resident unit holders withholding is required to be made at a concessional rate of 5%. (Section 194LBA of the Act)

Further, in case of External Commercial Borrowings by the Business Trust, the benefit of reduced rate of 5% tax on interest payments to non-resident lenders shall be available on similar condition and for such period as specified in the section 194LC of the Act.

In case of distribution of the rental income from the assets directly held by REIT to the investors, in case of resident unit holder, tax shall deducted @ 10%, and in case of distribution to non-resident unit holder, the tax shall be deducted at rate in force as applicable for deduction of tax on payment to the non-resident of any sum chargeable to tax.

Return of Income

It shall be mandatory for every Business Trust to file its return of income irrespective of fact that no taxable income is earned during an assessment year.

Taxability in the hands of the Sponsor

In case of capital gains arising to the sponsor at the time of exchange of shares in SPV, being the unlisted company through which income generating assets are held indirectly by the business trusts, with units of the business trust, the taxation of gains is deferred. The tax on such gains is to be levied at the time of disposal of units by the sponsor. Earlier, the preferential capital gains regime (consequential to levy of STT) available to other unit holders of business trust, was not available to the sponsor at the time it offloads units of business trust acquired in exchange of its shareholding in the SPV through Initial offer at the time of listing of business trust on stock exchange. However, Finance Act, 2015 extended the benefit of concessional tax regime of i.e tax @15 % on STCG and exemption on LTCG under section 10(38) of the Act to the sponsor on sale of units received in lieu of shares of SPV subject to levy of STT.

Our Analysis

Tax Regime in respect of Business Trusts as brought in by the Finance Act, 2014 and amended subsequently is not at par with similar regimes in the developed countries. In most of the countries, Business Trusts have been accorded with complete 'pass through' status. However, in India 'pass through' treatment has only been provided in respect of dividend income received from the SPVs. In respect of other incomes apart from rental income from the directly held assets, Business Trusts are subject to maximum marginal rate of tax.

It has been provided in section 115UA(1) of the Act that any income distributed by a Business Trust to its unit holders shall be deemed to be of same nature and in the same proportion as it had been to the Trust. However, there was no need for such vast wordings when all other distribution by Business Trusts to unit holders is exempt as per the section 10(23FD) of the Act hence the language to that extent is appearing superfluous.

It may also be noted that there is concession in the tax withholding rates in respect of payments to the non-residents. Further, benefit of concessional rate in section 194LC of the Act for ECBs has also been provided to the Business Trusts. It is looking purposeful to pool foreign investments in these trusts.

In the overall, these propositions may be called as a welcome step from the 'Ministry of Finance' as these will tend to provide certainty in the taxation in the hands of trust and unit holders.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Singh & Associates
Karthik Ranganathan
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Singh & Associates
Karthik Ranganathan
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions