India: Legality Of Metag-ing, Linking & Framing

INTRODUCTION :

The Internet as we experience is witness a major change with the process of constant development. It has to be ascertained that the magnitude of development paves way for the force to attract malware and malicious activities. Like all client based industry the biggest asset for the internet industry is the user base. Depending on the amount of understanding the user posses, they fall prey to the traps laid down to various kinds of cyber crimes. Despite being in disguise of useful information, trails like meta-taging, linking and framing are the shadows which follow the user without reveling the identity, which upon refining comes out to be a different pretext altogether. The voluminous increases in types of crimes have further boosted the number of victims which fall prey to internet activities. The success-rate of meta-taging, linking and framing is higher from other crimes making them the most practiced events, which pave way to a lot of legal actions as well. Despite having been in existence and recognition for a long time now, a binding statute is yet to be made to govern the atrocities these activities are capable of, though there have been case laws which speak about the necessary course of actions, but they fail to lay down concrete measures. The most affected are the innocent companies which fall prey to the trap mechanism, primarily targeting their Intellectual Property mostly Trademark, Goodwill, and Copyright.

LINKING

"A "link" is a set of commands in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that when actuated by right-clicking a mouse directs your browser to another page. The new page could be in the website you're viewing or it could be a page in another website.

Three other well known type of links are: "intra-page, intra-system, and inter-system. Intra-page links connect different parts of the same document. For example, a long document may have a link at the end which takes the user back to the beginning. Intra-system links connect different documents on the same server. An intra-system link on a university's server might connect the home pages of two different departments. An intersystem link connects documents on different servers. Thus, a document concerning intellectual property law on a university's server might be connected to the home page of the Governments Patent Office"

Some relevant cases in order to provide on a general perspective for linking:

Shetland Times, Ltd. v. Jonathan Wills and Another,1 is considered the first "linking" case; "the issue presented in Shetland Times was whether the Shetland News's ("News") "deep link" to embedded pages of the Shetland Times's ("Times") web site, through the use of Times' web site's news headlines, was an act of copyright infringement under British law. The matter settled on the day of trial, shortly after the court had issued a preliminary injunction precluding the deep link. Although much discussed, this opinion has proved to be of little legal significance, in part because of the extremely low evidentiary standard applied by the court."

Nottinghamshire County Council v. Gwatkin,2 "the Nottingham shire County Council filed suit against three British journalists and a web site operator claiming that their Internet posting of a long suppressed government report critical of Nottingham's Social Services Department's investigation into allegations of Satanism and child abuse in the late 1980s infringed on the Council's copyright to the report."

One of the most well known cases it was Ticket master v. Microsoft - The first major case involving the practice of deep linking involved Microsoft's use of deep links from its "Sidewalk" web guides. These web guides spotlighted, among other things, upcoming events in a particular area, and would provide deep links to information on specific events on interior pages of the Ticket master web site. At that time, Ticket master had recently signed an agreement to provide event information and ticket-ordering links to a competing web guide service, City Search. Through this agreement, City Search was paying Ticketmaster for what Microsoft was taking for free. Tickemaster filed suit against Microsoft on April 28,1997, arguing that Microsoft's practices devalued Ticketmaster's site by bypassing its home page.

In addition most of copyright laws are clear about the fact of qualifying as infringer to anyone who breaks up or violates any of the right that the law has protected as the consequence of the authorship. Facing the facts, there is not a unique position about if all linking process involves a copyright infringement. In that sense is necessary to recall some cases in law as Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. Where the test was if the device had some legal use. In this sense the opinion of Edward A. Cavazos and Coe F. Miles in the case of Dilbert cartoons is "If the link in question is an auto-load link, however, it may be the case that the link looks and functions more like a "means to infringe" or that the linking party so substantially participates in the user's acts that the linking party can be deemed a participatory infringer.

FRAMING

Framing is a method of splitting one window into two or more screens. A web page can be inserted into a frame, and that portion of the screen will remain static as a user moves through other web pages. This method is called "framing," because it allows a webmaster to send an individual through numerous web pages while retaining the appearance and the utility of the frame inserted.

Most of the "Intellectual Property in Cyberspace" pages utilize frames. The pages in this technical primer have been set to open outside of the frames." Technically explained, a framing process works as follow: "The frames may contain either highlighted URL addresses of other Web pages that are intended to be "selected" by the framing page user or other pages within the same Web site.

LEGALITY OF FRAMING

Nevertheless the most accepted legal concept is that framing can cause consumer confusion and thereby violating trademarks laws and under particular laws can be unfair competition. The problem with a finding of copyright infringement of a literary work where such links are concerned is similar to that raised in respect of meta-tags because these hypertext links are likely to contain only relatively short phrases. The case of Shetland Times is unlikely to be helpful as it was only an interim decision and thus decided on a lower standard of proof. An example of such a pictorial link would be that found in Ticketmaster Corp v Microsoft Corp where the link from the defendant's web site to the plaintiff's site comprised the plaintiff's logo.98 In that case, the plaintiff sold and marketed tickets to various entertainment events through its web site 'http://www.ticketmaster.com' on the internet. The home page of the plaintiff displayed advertisements, products and services of other parties with which the plaintiff had contracts, thus providing it with an important source of revenue. The defendant set up a web site 'http://seattle.sidewalk.com' and initially entered into negotiations with the plaintiff to have hyperlinks from their Seattle Sidewalk site to the plaintiff's Ticketmaster site. When the negotiations failed, the defendant established the links anyway.

META-TAGGING

Every domain name can be translated to any IP address and there is no logical connection between an individually selected domain name and the IP address. The value of a simple and memorable domain name is incalculable to a business and has no doubt fuelled the aforementioned litigation over domain names. Very often, a customer who is unsure about a company's domain name will often guess that the domain name is also the company's name.

TRADE MARK INFRINGEMENT

The cause of action of choice at present however appears to be that of trade mark infringement. In Playboy Enterprises Inc v Calvin Designer Label, Legge J found that the plaintiff 'is likely to succeed on the merits in proving inter alia trademark infringement ... in Defendants' ... repeated use of the PLAYBOY trademark in machine readable code in Defendants' Internet Web pages, so that the PLAYBOY trademark is accessible to individuals or Internet search engines which attempt to access Plaintiff under Plaintiff's PLAYBOY registered trade mark.'

In Instituform Technologies Inc v National Envirotech Group LLC, the parties settled under terms that permanently enjoined the defendant from using the plaintiff's trademarks as meta-tags in their web site. Other cases followed, culminating in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal's decision in Brookfield Communications Inc v West Coast Entertainment Corp in which the Ninth Circuit issued a preliminary injunction against the defendant from, inter alia, using 'moviebuff.com' in meta-tags on its web site as such use was likely to infringe the plaintiff's trade mark 'MovieBuff'.

COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT

There are various intellectual property regimes which are potentially available to a plaintiff in a litigation involving meta-tags. Copyright is one such possibility which cannot be discounted in the light of the extremely unconvincing reasoning of the English Court of Appeal in the case of Exxon Corporation v Exxon Insurance Consultants International Ltd.

In that case, the plaintiff sought to restrain the defendant from infringing the plaintiffs' alleged copyright in their corporate name 'Exxon'. The English Court of Appeal dismissed the plaintiff's action on the basis that the word 'Exxon' was not a 'literary work' in which copyright could subsist. Stephenson LJ was of the view that 'a literary work [is] something which is intended to afford either information or instruction, or pleasure in the form of literary enjoyment'. The Court of Appeal found that the word 'Exxon' provided no information, instruction or pleasure and thus, copyright did not subsist in the word. Accordingly, the plaintiff's action failed. The result achieved by the courts is not doubted by the majority of commentators.

The preferable justification for denying copyright in such cases would be the maxim de minimis non curat lex; Unless this is so, the useful working rule that simplicity and brevity are not bars to copyright could easily be carried too far, creating monopolies over any two alphabets joined together. Such an interpretation of the phrase 'literary work' would be wholly alien to its natural meaning in ordinary parlance; hence the need for the maxim of de minimis non curat lex to restrict the ambit of 'literary work' within reasonable limits. If the maxim were embraced by the courts to rationalize the Exxon case, it is unlikely that any action in copyright infringement can be sustained in respect of disputes concerning meta-tags which are independently created by the web author.

CONCLUSION

The evolving times have created a dire need for a reform to address and handle all the challenging scenarios at hand. The biggest obstacle is to identify and try to mould the present conventional laws and try to address the problem under the umbrella of the same. The distinction at both national and international level regarding the absence of absolutely applicable laws is a striking factor.

It must be taken into account that apart from the threats possessed by the acts of framing, linking and meta-tagging; the biggest challenge lies in form to the impact which is given to the intellectual property when incidents relating to these occur. The intellectual property in either of the forms is irrevocably hurt and being very fragile upon being hurt once the damage caused is irreversible.

Footnotes

1 1997 F.S.R. (Ct. Sess. O.H.), 24 October 1996

2 (High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, June 3, 1997)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions