India: Groundwork To Internationalization - Changes At The Indian Trademarks Registry

Last Updated: 22 October 2013
Article by Meenu Maheswary

Indian trademark system has always been dynamic and responsive to the changing international scenario. Likewise since its establishment in the year 1940, the Indian Trademark Registry is always in the process of equipping itself to meet the requirements of international standards, practice and procedure. Latest among these is the implementation of Madrid system of international registration of marks.

India joined the Madrid system which came into force on July 8, 2013. The implementation of Madrid System is just another milestone in India's endeavor to globalize its intellectual property regime, the business and its economy. In order to equip the existing system to adapt to the international system under the Madrid Regime, the Indian Trademarks Registry has undergone a rigorous revamping in all sectors of practice and procedure. This reviving and restructuring process has started almost 5 years back. In order to have a robust system to support the successful implementation of Madrid Protocol and the requirements of international registration under the Madrid system, the Trademark Registry has undertaken capacity building exercise particularly with regard to IT infrastructure and human resources. These endeavors have resulted in major restructuring, reduction of backlogs, digitization and online accessibility of records, online and free public search of marks, etc.

Madrid member countries- Image from here

To start with the existing Act and Rules were amended to incorporate the relevant provisions related to the international Registration of marks. The existing Classification of Goods and Services, which had only 42 classes, were amended to include all 45 classes under the Nice classification to make it consistent with the Madrid Goods and Services (MGS)

Image from here

The Indian Registry was facing a huge backlog of work at the prosecution, opposition and post registration level. Subsequent to the direction of the Delhi High Court, in the year 2010 the Trademarks Registry published a list of registered matters wherein the records were missing and gave a chance to the right holders to reconstruct the same. This helped in keeping the records in order. Subsequently, the Registry has undertaken a number of special drives to clear the backlog. Among them are Special drive to restore removed matters from the Register of Trademarks; Special drive for correction of errors in the Registration Certificate; Special drive to dispose off opposition matters wherein settlement was arrived at; Special drive to clear the backlog of post-registration matters by listing the matters such as assignments, name change, address change, mergers for hearing; Special drive of Pending Applications Record management(PARM); Special drive to dispose off pending examined matters by fixing hearing, to mention a few.

The whole system of trademark registry is in the process of digitisation and in furtherance of that various steps were taken by the Registry such as- Strenthening the online filing of applications by introducing the comprehensive online filing system; Complete records of each applications/registrations were made vailable to the public through the E-Register; Publication of Examination Reports through the E-Register and also allowing the right holders to send responses to the Examination Report through email (;Publishing monthly hearing lists for applications/oppositions/post registration matters to make it easy for the right holders; Recently introduced a special section in the website for hearing and adjpournment details of the matters to inform the right holders on time;Publishing the Trademarks Journal weekly on the website; introduced an online tool to enable the trademarks owners/agents to correct any clerical/typographical errors in the data entryat the Trademarks office. 

The entire process of clearing the backlog and digitisation creates more transparency and accuracy of Trademark procurement. This will help the Indian system easily adapt to the International Standards and thereby making India's accession to the Madrid system a grand success. However, Indian system still needs to be improved on the substantive aspects of the registration and one such area is the quality of Examination of Applications. The Registry generally issues objection on the Absolute (Section 9) and/or Relative (Section 11) grounds of Refusal other than the procedural objections if any. A study on a number of such reports revealed that the objections were raised in general and not specific to the subject mark in hand. For instance if the objection is on Section 9 (1) (b) which says- a trademark which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of the goods or rendering of the service or other characteristics of the goods or services; the report will general mention the whole section instead of specifying whether the objection is on the quality or quantity or intended purpose etc. Likewise in Section 11 objection without clearly analysing the search report, all the marks which are not even identical/similar/deceptively similar to the mark in hand will be enclosed along with the Examination Report. Improving the quality of Examination and Hearing is the need of the day and only that can make the system reach upto the international level.

Over the years Indian economy has undergone a rapid transformation and IP assets have grown in importance and value, rapidly outpacing tangible assets. Trademarks and brands are of high importance in this rapidly growing economy and to keep up with developments in the international and national business and trade, it is important for the industry, government agencies and the judiciary to work together closely and continue to develop mechanisms to protect the rights and to enable India to improve and expand its Trademarks regime.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Meenu Maheswary
In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.