India: The Communications Convergence Bill: India´s Tryst with Destiny

Last Updated: 11 July 2002
Article by Ashish Pathak


Pursuant to the recommendations of an expert group, the Government of India (hereafter "GOI" or "Government") has recently completed and released a draft Communication Convergence Bill, 2000 that aims to provide a clear regulatory framework for keeping pace with the convergence of telecom, Internet and broadcasting services occurring worldwide. This new legislation, drafted along the lines of an amendment to the U.S. Telecommunications Act of 1996 and Malaysia’s 1998 Multimedia Act, would make India the second country in the world after Malaysia to adopt legislation covering the convergence of high-tech media.

One of the most notable features of the Bill is the creation of the Communications Commission of India (hereafter the "CCI" or the "Commission") and the consolidation of India’s ministries of Information Technology, Communications, and Information Broadcasting. The Commission is proposed to be established as the regulatory authority in convergence of Information Technology, communications and broadcasting, and is expected to be responsible for managing the spectrum, granting of licenses and enforcing their conditions, determining tariff rates and ensuring a competitive marketplace.

The Bill, and eventually the Communication Convergence Act, is expected to repeal a number of legislations such as the Indian Telegraph Act (1885), the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act (1933), the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act (1995) and the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act (1997). The proposed law would be short, with detailed rules and regulations promulgated by subordinate legislation so as to cope with rapid changes in technology, and to address problems faced by the industry as and when they arise. Delegated legislation is to be provided by the Central Government and Commission to implement the provisions of the proposed Act in letter and spirit. In order to avoid the vice of excessive delegation, the Bill provides that all rules and regulations framed under the proposed Act must be tabled before Parliament for approval and modification.

Understanding Convergence

The term convergence has not been defined in the Bill. Convergence commonly refers to the provision of different kinds of services over the existing infrastructure and the enhancement of existing technologies so as to provide a wide variety of services. This results from the blurring of borders between telecommunications, computing and media. Quite obviously, it is a term that eludes precise definition and it is very difficult to formulate an exhaustive definition. Put simply, it is the ability of different network platforms to carry essentially similar kinds of services. To simplify further, it is the coming together of consumer devices like the telephone, television and personal computer as progress is made towards the transmission of information, whether data, sound or images over the same infrastructure.

For consumers, the convergence of technologies means the provision of various services like the cable television, basic telephone services and Internet access, through a single infrastructure resulting in the possibilities to make cheap phone calls over the Internet, using televisions to access the Internet, downloading movies from the Internet, and to have e-mail, data and Internet access over mobile phone networks, etc. The possibilities are endless!

Legal/Regulatory Issues In Providing Services Incorporating The Convergence Of Technologies

Regulatory challenges thrown up for the provision of convergent services are many. As in the case of most countries, separate licenses have been issued in India for basic, cellular, ISP, satellite and cable TV operators, each with separate industry structure, terms of entry and varying requirements of creating infrastructure. However, the fact that convergence now allows operators to use their facilities to deliver some services reserved for other operators necessitated a re-look into the existing policy framework.

In India, at present, different departments of the Government regulate the Telecom, Broadcasting and IT industries differently. Whereas telecom services are regulated by the Union Government through the Ministry of Communications, separate and distinct licenses are required for Internet access services, basic telephony and cellular telephony under the antiquated Telegraph Act of 1885. On the other hand, radio and television broadcasting services are regulated by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting under the Telegraph Act, 1885. New developments facilitated by the convergence of technologies, entailed this need for a paradigm shift in the regulatory framework to encourage the adoption of convergent technologies, and do away with differential treatment, resulting thereby in this effort to merge regulations governing various services and remove the multiplicity of licensing requirements.

Proposals Of The Expert Committee

As mentioned earlier, an expert group was constituted in order to recommend changes to the regulatory structure in the light of convergence. They made several far reaching recommendations, which have been incorporated in the Bill.

The following are some of the salient features of the recommendations:

  • The proposed law to incorporate various aspects of the Broadcasting Bill, 1997, and to supercede and merge various other statutes, such as the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933 and the Cable Television Networks Regulation Act, 1995.
  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 to be repealed. However, neither the functions of the Telecom Regulatory Authority nor the Appellate Tribunal constituted thereunder would be abolished. They only stand transferred to and get incorporated into the new enactment.
  • Constitution of a single and independent regulatory authority for broadcasting and telecom services, namely the Communications Commission of India.
  • The Commission to continuously interact with various sectors of industry to help set standards and formulate regulatory norms, both as to content and carriage of information. It would be required to establish a licensing framework in the scenario of convergence of telecommunication, broadcasting, multi media and other related technologies and set up a single regulatory framework for carriage and information content.
  • The proposed law envisages the Commission initiating and establishing a regime of "enforced self-regulation", that is, service providers being persuaded to establish disciplinary regimes of their own to avoid the threat of formal legal intervention.
  • Frequency allocation in a fair and facilitative manner as the "frequency spectrum" is a critical and scarce natural resource, to ensure that no single agency creates conditions inimical to the growth of industry, and at the same time, preventing any compromise of the country’s security requirements.
  • As regards licensing, the model adopted envisages separate categories of licenses for network facilities, network services, application services and content application services and not to restrict licensing to certain specific services only. This is to ensure that the classification is both technology and service-sector neutral. The proposals also contemplate a specific category of "composite licenses" that could be granted for providing multiple telecommunication services or facilities. The proposal also envisages the Government considering amendments to existing licenses.
  • The proposals also provide for the incorporation of social obligations or "Universal Service Obligations". However, as the range of obligations and their character and content would be different in different places and situations, left to be prescribed by rules.


Under Chapter IV, the objective of the Bill is to create a regulatory environment that aspires to be flexible enough to accommodate and propagate any permutation and combination of technologies and services, without any attempts to predict the future. In order to achieve a technology-neutral and service sector-neutral environment, the Bill outlines the creation of four categories of licenses that include network infrastructure facilities, network services, application services and content application services.

According to Section 19, the CCI while exercising its functions is required to be guided by the following principles:

  • To ensure that a modern and effective communication infrastructure is established taking into account the convergence of information technology, media, telecom and consumer electronics.
  • To ensure that the communication sector is developed in a competitive environment and that market dominance is suitably regulated. To ensure that communication services are made available at an affordable cost to uncovered areas like rural, remote, hilly and tribal areas.
  • To ensure that there is increasing access to information for greater empowerment of citizens and towards economic development
  • To make sure that quality, plurality, diversity and choice of services are promoted.
  • To protect the security interests of the country.
  • To facilitate the introduction of new technologies, investment in services and infrastructure, and to maximize communications facilities and services (including telephone density).
  • To ensure equitable and non-discriminatory interconnection across various networks.
  • To ensure that licensing criteria are transparent and to provide for an open licensing policy.
  • To provide for a level playing field for all operators serving consumer interest.

Licensing Provisions And Technologies/Services To Be Regulated By The Bill

The Bill states that no person would be allowed to use any part of the spectrum without assignment from the Central Government or the Commission (Section 3). Furthermore, no person would be allowed to own or provide any network infrastructure facility, or provide any network service, application service or content application service without a license granted under the proposed Act (Section 4). In addition, no person is permitted to possess any wireless equipment without obtaining a license (Section 30).

As per Section 26, Chapter VII, the Commission may grant license to any person for providing the following services technologies/ services:

  1. Network infrastructure facilities1;
  2. Network services2;
  3. Application services3; and
  4. Content application services4.

It is expected that the classification mentioned above will be technology-neutral and service sector-neutral since setting up an infrastructural facility and its use is not linked to the provision of a particular service by using a particular technology. Therefore, services can be provided by using any facility and any technology.

The Bill envisages that in an era of convergence, an application service provider or content application service provider could utilize the services of any network service provider for carrying their application/content. In turn, the network service provider would have the flexibility to utilize the infrastructure provided by any network facility provider and to carry application/content from any application service provider or content application service provider. Similarly the network facility provider can provide the infrastructure to any network service provider.

Powers And Functions Of The Commission

Main Functions

According to Section 20, Sub Sections (1) and (2), the primary function of the Commission will be to facilitate and regulate all matters relating to the carriage and content of communications. Specifically, it shall be responsible for:

  • Carrying out management, planning and monitoring of the spectrum for commercial usages.
  • Granting licenses, determining and enforcing license conditions and fees.
  • Determining appropriate tariffs and rates for licensed services.
  • Ensuring competition in the market, and that service providers do not become dominant players to the detriment of other service providers or consumers.
  • Promoting competition and efficiency in the operation of communication services and network infrastructure facilities.
  • Formulating and determining conditions for fair, equitable and non-discriminatory access to a network infrastructure facility or network service such other related matters in respect thereof.
  • Taking measures to protect consumer interests and to enforce universal service obligations.
  • Formulating and laying down programme and advertising codes in respect of content application services.
  • Formulating and laying down commercial codes in respect of communication services and network infrastructure facilities.
  • Taking steps to regulate or curtail the harmful and illegal content on the internet and other communication services.
  • Formulating and lay down codes and technical standards and norms to ensure quality and interoperability of services and network infrastructure facilities.
  • Carrying out studies on matters of importance to the consumers, service providers and the communications industry.
  • Institutionalizing appropriate mechanisms to interact on a continual basis with all sectors of industry and consumers.
  • Making recommendations on matters that the Central Government refers to it.

Adjudication of Disputes

According to Section 22, the Commission shall hear and decide complaints from any person regarding contravention of the provisions the proposed Act, rules, regulations or orders made thereunder. In particular, the Commission shall hear and decide:

  • Disputes between two or more service providers on issues relating to spectrum interference, interconnectivity, denial of fair access and practices restrictive of fair competition.
  • Disputes between a service provider and a group of consumers arising out of enforcement of any provision of the proposed Act.

In trying suits, the Commission shall have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure. It would not be bound by the procedure laid down by the Code of Civil Procedure, but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice and shall have powers to regulate its own procedure.

Regulation of Content of Communications

According to Section 21, the Commission is expected to specify programme codes and standards that may include inter alia practices:

  • To Ensure That Nothing Prejudicial To The Interests Of The Sovereignty And Integrity Of India, The Security Of State, Friendly Relations With Foreign States, Public Order Or Which May Constitute Contempt Of Court, Defamation Or Incitement To An Offence Is Contained In Any Programme.
  • To Ensure Fairness And Impartiality In Presentation Of News And Other Programmes.
  • To Ensure Emphasis On Promotion Of Indian Culture, Values Of National Integration, Religious And Communal Harmony, And A Scientific Temper.
  • To Ensure In All Programmes Decency In Portrayal Of Women, And Restraint In Portrayal Of Violence And Sexual Conduct.
  • To Enhance General Standards Of Good Taste, Decency And Morality.

Obtaining A License

Conditions for Obtaining a License

The license can be for any one of the categories specified above, or may be in the nature of a composite license - jointly for one or more categories. While granting a license, the Commission may confine or limit the scope of the service to be provided. It may also specify by way of regulations (Section 26):

  • Eligibility conditions for issue of licenses;
  • Cross-media restrictions having regard to accumulation of interest; and
  • Restrictions or otherwise on the number of licenses or extent of accumulation of interest in such licenses by a person.

Conditions for the Grant of a License to use Wireless Equipment

Under Section 30, any person who intends to posses any wireless equipment must make an application with the requisite fees to the Commission for the grant of a license. The Commission is not to reject any application except on grounds of security of State, public order or other public interest. Every license issued by the Commission shall be subject to such conditions and restrictions as the Commission may determine by regulations.

Duties Imposed upon Service Providers

According to Section 28, the Commission may, from time to time, determine obligations, conditions, restrictions, tariffs and rates subject to which the service provider shall provide services. As the range of obligations and their character and content would be different in different places and situations, it has been left to be prescribed by rules and is not provided for in the Bill.

The Bill specifies that every service provider shall:

  • Provide such services to give effect to universal service obligations that may be prescribed;
  • Provide such life saving services that may be prescribed;
  • Provide service to any person on demand (within a reasonable period of time) and on a non-discriminatory basis;
  • Follow the codes and standards laid down and specified by the Commission; and
  • Register with the Commission any shareholder agreements, promoters agreements or inter-connectivity agreements.

In addition, every content application service provider shall:

  • Endeavor to provide a suitable proportion of programmes of indigenous origin; and
  • Ensure that none of its programmes infringes any copyrights.

Conditions for the Live Broadcast of Certain Live Events

In order to ensure the widest availability of viewing of national or international events held in India, the Bill provides under Section 32 that no person shall carry a broadcast of any event in India that has been previously notified by the Central Government, unless the public service broadcaster has also been offered the broadcasting rights, on such terms as may be determined by the Commission in advance of the bidding for the event.

Governmental Intervention

According to Section 72, in the event of war or any other natural calamity, the Central Government may take over the control and management of any communication service or any network infrastructure facility connected therewith, suspend its operation or entrust any agency of that Government to manage it.

Similarly, in expediencies, the Central Government may request the Commission to direct a licensee to transmit announcements on its broadcasting service. It may also stop any broadcasting service that is prejudicial to the sovereignty or security of India, friendly relations with foreign States, or to public order, decency or morality, or communal harmony.

Penalties And Adjudication

Consequences of Breach of the Terms of the License

Under chapter X, Section 33, the Bill proposes to levy a stiff penalty of Rupees 50 crores if a licensee commits fails to observe any of the terms and conditions subject to which a license was issued. The same would apply to a failure to observe a rule, regulation or order made under the Act.

In addition, under the chapter the Commission may direct the licensee to do or abstain from doing any act, suspend the license, curtail the period of the license, or revoke the license. It may also authorize the seizure of the equipment being used for provision of such service. The equipment cannot be retained for over ninety days without the approval of the Appellate Tribunal.

As regards the consequence of providing communication services using unlicensed equipment, if a person transmits any communication by the use of unlicensed equipment, or equipment which is operated in contravention of the provisions of the proposed Act or any rules, or regulations made thereunder, he shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to Rupees 10 crores.

As for the consequences of delivering content through unlicensed equipment, if a person delivers content for transmission or accepts delivery of any content sent by the use of equipment which he knows or has reason to believe is operated without a license or in contravention of the provisions of this Act or any rules or regulations made thereunder, he shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to 10 crores.

Failure to Register Agreements

Under Section 37, if a service provider fails to register an agreement which is required to be so registered, for example, shareholder agreements, promoters agreements or inter-connectivity agreements, he shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to Rupees 10 lakhs.

Failure to Comply with Orders of the Commission

Under Section 38, if a person willfully fails to comply with an order of the Commission, he shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to Rupees 5 crores. In the event of a second failure, he shall be liable to pay a further penalty of up to Rupees 10 crores. In the event of continuing failure, his penalty may extend to Rupees 2 lakhs for every day during which such failure continues.

The Complaint Mechanism

Complaints to the Commission must be filed within 60 days of the occurrence of the event. If the Commission believes that a prima facie case exists, it will refer the matter to the Adjudicating Officer who would be an officer of the Commission. The Commission may suo moto refer contraventions of the proposed Act to the Adjudicating Officer. In hearing the complaint and deciding it, the Adjudicating Officer shall have the powers of a civil court in a number of matters.

Calculation of Penalties

Under Section 41, while adjudging the quantum of penalty under this Chapter, the Adjudicating Officer is to have due regard to the provisions of this Act as well as the revenue loss to the Government, the amount of disproportionate gain, the loss caused to any person, the repetitive nature of the default and that fact that the penalty must act as a deterrent.

The Appellate Structure

Under chapter XII, The Bill envisages the establishment of the Communications Appellate Tribunal to hear appeals from orders of the Commission or Adjudicating Officer. The Tribunal is expected to deal with matters expeditiously and dispose of matters within 90 days. In order to discharge its functions, it is vested with many of the powers of a civil court. However, it shall not be bound by the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, but shall have the power to regulate its procedure guided by principles of natural justice. Appeals from the Tribunal shall lie to the Supreme Court within 90 days. Decisions of the Tribunal shall be executable as decisions of a civil court. Failure to comply with orders of the tribunal may lead to a penalty of Rupees 50 millions.

Bar on Jurisdiction of Civil Courts

Under Section 79, the Bill excludes the jurisdiction of civil courts over matters which an Adjudicating Officer or the Appellate Tribunal or the Commission is empowered by this Act to determine. They are also prohibited from issuing injunctions against actions taken or to be taken under the Act.


We believe that the Bill represents a significant step forward in developing a future oriented vision for India’s Information Technology, Communications and Broadcast industries. For a country with a teledensity level well below both the Asian and global average, the proposed Bill is significant in that it marks a major step towards revolutionizing telecommunications in India. In initiating this Bill, India has made a great stride in developing a flexible regulatory environment overseeing the converged interests of its Information Technology, Communications and Broadcast industries. Furthermore, by continuing to develop innovative and forward thinking regulatory strategies that promote industry led, market oriented developments in this essential sector, India is positioning itself to become one of the leading destinations of the global information economy, and a leading exporter of multi-media products and services.

1 These refer to the provision of physical infrastructure which could be utilized by other licensees for providing various services. The infrastructure set up by any network facility provider could cut across the infrastructure set up by various licenses as they exist today. Examples would include earth stations, fixed links and cables, public payphone facilities, radio-communications transmitters and links, satellite hubs, towers, poles, ducts and pits used in conjunction with other network facilities, etc.

2 The network service provider utilizes the infrastructure set up by one or more network facility providers to carry various kinds of services. He would have the flexibility to carry the application/content of various Application Service Providers and also be flexible to utilize the infrastructure set up by one or more network facility providers. Examples would include like bandwidth services, broadcasting distribution services, cellular mobile services, customer access services and mobile satellite services.

3 These would include public switched telephone network (PSTN) telephony, public cellular telephony services, web telephony, Public payphone service and public switched data service.

4 These would include satellite broadcasting, subscription broadcasting, terrestrial free to air TV broadcasting and terrestrial radio broadcasting.

The content of this article does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied on in that way. Specific advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.