India: 印度民营有限公司与中国外资企业与的比较

Last Updated: 14 August 2019
Article by Dezan Shira & Associates

随着印度市场的蓬勃发展,投资者越来越关心外资进入印度的渠道,而中国作为"世界工厂",一直位于投资的焦点,中国外资企业与印度民营有限公司的比较能为投资者进行投资提供部分信息。

在中国, 外商独资企业(WFOE)是由一个或多个外国投资者独立成立的有限责任公司(LLC),没有强制要求必须有一个国内合伙人。

由于中国的政策, 外商独资企业拥有灵活性,中国成为外商投资的热门目的地。

外国投资者越来越相信,中国的经济和法律体系,没有必要过度依赖当地合作伙伴。

很多因素决定着在中国设立WFOE颇具吸引力,尤其是对从事制造业或贸易的企业。

因素包括:

  • 100%的外资所有权和控制权;
  • 技术和知识产权的安全保障;
  • 具备开发内部结构的能力;
  • 即使在外国也能保持组织文化;
  • 进入中国巨大市场的途径;
  • 可以将资金汇回控股公司。

根据印度法律,外国投资者允许在100%外国直接投资(FDI)允许行业范围内以设立 私人有限公司(WOS)的形式设立 外商独资公司

印度的WOS与中国的WFOE形式相似,但有几个关键区别。访问 这里获得在 印度设立外商独资公司的流程,点击 这里查看在 中国设立外商独资企业的流程。

印度和中国对外资企业的监管

在印度,100%的外商独资公司和合资公司是同样的监管机制。2013年的《公司法》监管印度的 合资企业(JVs)和全资子公司。

在中国,合资企业和外商投资企业同样适用《公司法》、《2013年外商投资企业设立变更备案办法》等。但是,对每种类型的法律实体也有其他对应的规定。

例如,中国的合资企业,无论是有限责任公司还是股份有限公司,都要遵守2013年《公司法》的规定。此外,外商投资合资企业还必须遵守《中外合资经营企业法》和《中外合作经营企业法》。

不同类型的WFOE根据其经营范围和行业类别有不同的注册标准。一些类型实体需要预先批准才能设立,外商独资的贸易公司需要向海关注册,外商独资的制造公司需要通过 环境影响报告的审核等。印度的 监管制度环境也类似。

这里讨论了在印度建立合资企业的规范。

确保外商直接投资在印度获得批准

根据《外汇管理法》(FEMA),外商投资在印度的批准有两种途径—— 自动审批和政府审批。(详见2017年8月发布的《外商直接投资综合政策》,在 2018年1月修订。)

在印度和中国,公司的经营范围(公司的预期经营范围)建立100%外商独资,或者增加一位国内投资者。

例如,在印度,外商投资的行业有上限或者政府审批低于49%,则需要一名印度本地投资者的参与。

符合100%外商投资自动审批的则不需要事先审批。

印度和中国间设立公司的比较

在印度设立私人有限公司/全资子公司与在中国设立外商独资公司有很大不同。

在印度,标准的设立过程被称为"自动路径",这涉及一个相对容易的建立过程。

按照印度储备银行(RBI)发布的总指南,一些行业允许100%外商投资。

对于这些行业,在 设立实体之前不需要事先批准,设立过程相对简单。

外商投资者需要在注资后30天内通知印度储备银行,提交相应的注册申请。

对于需要审批的行业,不仅对行业规定了上限,而且投资需要政府批准。

在这种情况下,需要遵循另外的程序。

此外,公司必须通过产业政策和促进部(DIPP)获得相关部委或行政部门的投资批准。

为了提高印度的营商便利度,印度政府现对大多数行业允许100%的外国直接投资自动审批。

在中国,越来越多的行业开放外商投资,比如汽车和保险行业。2018年7月,中国发布了最新的 负面清单,将限制行业从63个减少到48个, 自由贸易区的负面清单也从95个减少到45个。

对外国直接投资限制或受法律监管的主要行业包括金融、电信、教育、医疗、互联网业务以及任何从事自然资源开采或加工的行业。

在印度,外国直接投资制度更为自由。

在2018年1月发布的《外商投资政策》中,除了放宽电力行业和医疗器械行业的外商投资外,政府还允许品牌零售贸易商和建筑开发行业的外商投资执行自动路径审批。

正如前面提到的,印度允许大多数行业的100%外国投资,而不需要政府的特别批准。

外国直接投资限制的行业包括采矿、国防、石油精炼、广播服务、印刷媒体和航空运输服务。然而,在这些行业,即便获得政府批准后,也可以遇到超出行业上限。

组织需求的差异

有意在中国设立外商独资企业或在印度设立外商独资企业的外国投资者,必须遵循政府对组织结构的规则。然而,在这方面两个国家也存在区别。

设立外商独资企业(WFOE)需要一名执行董事或董事会,至少一名监事和一名总经理。

另一方面,印度的WOS必须至少有2名董事,以及2到200名股东。独立的法律实体可以作为股东。例如,印度教不可分割的家庭(HUF),而董事仅由个人担当。

与中国的情况一样,注册资本金额应该是决定企业经营和现金流需求的一项财务指标。对于印度的WOS,最低注册资金要求为10万印度卢比(约1 500美元)。根据2015年《公司(修正案)法案》,这一规定已经放宽。

外商独资企业(WFOE)和全资公司(WOS)的纳税比较

印度不征收股息税,而中国对汇回的利润征收10%的税。此外,中国的劳动力福利成本更高。

然而,同样重要的是,印度国内企业需要缴纳股息税,税率为股息金额的16.995%,从储备或余额中扣缴。

投资者所隶属国与印度签订 双重避税协议(DTAAs)需要根据相应的DTAA条款计算各自的税务责任。

编者按:这篇文章最初发表于2012年8月,现已更新并包括最新的发展。

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