Germany: Keine Zuschläge bei Freistellung von der Arbeit wegen Abbaus von Mehrarbeitsstunden

Last Updated: 23 January 2019
Article by Tabea Frühinsfeld
Most Read Contributor in Germany, January 2019

Einem Arbeitnehmer stehen keine Ansprüche auf tarifliche Samstags-, Sonntags-, Feiertags- und Nacharbeitszuschläge für Zeiten zu, in denen er wegen Abbaus von Mehrarbeitsstunden tatsächlich nicht gearbeitet hat.

BAG, Urteil v. 19.09.2018 – 10 AZR 496/17

Die Parteien streiten über tarifliche Samstags-, Sonn-tags-, Feiertags- und Nachtarbeitszuschläge für Zeiten, in denen der Kläger nicht gearbeitet hat, weil er ein Mehrarbeitsstundenguthaben in Anspruch genommen hat.

Der Kläger arbeitet als Fluglotse. Auf sein Arbeitsverhältnis findet der Manteltarifvertrag für die bei der DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH beschäftigten Mitarbeiter (MTV) Anwendung. Der Kläger nimmt an der sog. flexiblen Schichtplanung teil. Für ihn wird ein Arbeitszeitkonto geführt. Nach § 14 MTV kann er zum Abbau von Mehrarbeitsstunden freie Tage beantragen. In der Zeit vom 25.02.2012 bis 25.04.2018 wurde dem Kläger auf seinen Antrag hin in 24 Fällen Mehrarbeitsstundenabbau gewährt. Dabei betraf der Stundenabbau in allen Fällen Zeiten, zu denen der Kläger im Schichtplan zu Samstags-, Sonntags-, Feiertags- und/oder Nachtarbeit eingeteilt war. Gemäß § 20 MTV werden für solche Arbeiten Zeitzuschläge gezahlt. Die Beklagte zahlte dem Kläger für die Zeiten des Abbaus der Mehrarbeitsstunden aber nur die reguläre Vergütung gemäß § 18 MTV, nicht jedoch die Zeitzuschläge.

Der Kläger verlangt mit seiner Klage die Zahlung der Zuschläge für diese Zeiten, insgesamt 1.205,59 EUR.

Das Arbeitsgericht gab der Klage statt. Das LAG wies die Klage ab. Die Revision blieb erfolglos.

Das BAG entschied, wie das LAG, dass dem Kläger für Zeiten, in denen er wegen Abbaus von Mehrarbeitsstunden nicht gearbeitet hat, keine Ansprüche auf Zuschläge zustehen.

Der Kläger könne seinen Anspruch nicht auf § 611 Abs. 1 BGB (seit 01.04.2017 § 611a Abs. 2 BGB) iVm den Grundsätzen des Annahmeverzugs nach §§ 615, 293 ff. BGB stützen. Die Beklagte habe sich mit der Annahme der Dienste des Klägers nicht in Verzug befunden. Für den Kläger habe keine Pflicht zur Arbeitsleitung und für die Beklagte keine Beschäftigungspflicht bestanden. Für die Dauer des Urlaubs oder während einer anderen rechtswirksamen Freistellung von der Arbeit ist dem Arbeitnehmer die Arbeitsleistung i.S.d. § 297 BGB rechtlich unmöglich. Der Arbeitgeber kann nicht in Gläubigerverzug geraten.

Der Kläger konnte seinen Anspruch auch nicht auf § 611 Abs. 1 BGB iVm §§ 14,20 MTV stützen, da die Regelungen zum Arbeitszeitkonto und die tarifvertragliche Zuschlagsregelung dies nicht vorsehen. Die Zeitgutschrift auf einem Arbeitszeitkonto sei lediglich eine abstrakte Recheneinheit, die für sich gesehen keinen Aufschluss darüber gäbe, wie sie erarbeitet wurde. Der Abbau erfolge durch Freizeitausgleich dergestalt, dass errechnet werde, wie viel freier Zeit" die angesammelten Stunden entsprechen. Zugleich stünde dem Kläger durch Umbuchung" seines Guthabens aus dem Arbeitszeitkonto die Vergütung zu, ohne gearbeitet zu haben. Dabei treffe § 14 MTV jedoch keine eigenständige Regelung, in welcher Höhe der Vergütungsanspruch besteht, so dass die allgemeinen Vergütungsregelungen gelten.

Um Anspruch auf die Zuschläge zu haben, müsste der Kläger somit die Voraussetzungen des § 20 MTV erfüllen. Die Zuschläge werden für geleistete Samstags-, Sonntags-, Feiertags- und Nachtarbeit gezahlt. Der Kläger habe in den Zeiträumen keine zuschlagspflichtige Arbeit geleistet. Allein der Umstand, dass er im Schichtplan ursprünglich für Arbeit zu zuschlagspflichtigen Zeiten eingeteilt war, hiervon aber zum Zweck des Abbaus von Mehrarbeitsstunden wieder befreit wurde, reiche nicht aus. Hierfür sprächen der Wortlaut sowie die Systematik und der Zweck der Regelung. Der Begriff Arbeit leisten" werde ausschließlich für das aktive Tun verwandt. Zeiten, in denen der Arbeitnehmer von der Arbeitsleistung befreit ist, fallen regelmäßig nicht hierunter. Zudem sollen die Zuschläge die besonderen Erschwernisse ausgleichen, die durch ungünstigere Arbeitszeiten entstehen. Das wäre nicht damit in Einklang zu bringen, wenn z.B. Feiertagszuschläge zu leisten wären, obwohl tatsächlich keine Feiertagsarbeit angefallen ist.

Praxistipp:

Zu Recht stellt das BAG klar, dass Zuschläge für Sams-tags-, Sonntags-, Feiertags- und Nachtarbeit nur zu gewähren sind, wenn tatsächlich zu solchen Zeiten gearbeitet wird.

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