Germany: Allzeit Bereit – Der Arbeitgeber Und Die Private Mobilnummer

Last Updated: 25 May 2018
Article by Martin Greßlin
Most Read Contributor in Germany, August 2018

Arbeitsrechtliche Themen rund um die permanente Erreichbarkeit von Arbeitnehmern über dienstliche Smartphones haben Konjunktur. Sie werden viel diskutiert, auch wenn aus Arbeitgebersicht auf Basis der aktuellen Gesetzeslage letztlich oft wenig Diskussionsspielraum verbleibt. Wenig diskutiert ist hingegen die Frage, ob Arbeitnehmer ohne dienstliches Smartphone ihre private Mobilnummer dem Arbeitgeber mitteilen müssen, um wenigstens in Notfällen erreichbar zu sein. Der 6. Senat des Landesarbeitsgerichts (LAG) Thüringen hat hierzu aktuell Stellung bezogen.

Im Rahmen der Anbahnung eines Arbeitsverhältnisses wird dem Arbeitgeber von der überwiegenden Meinung allgemein ein berechtigtes Interesse zugestanden, neben einer Postanschrift im Regelfall zumindest eine weitere Möglichkeit zur schnellen Kontaktaufnahme zu erheben, zu speichern und zu nutzen. Hierbei wird regelmäßig auf die private Festnetznummer abgestellt. Ob darüber hinaus auch eine private Mobilnummer oder eine private E-Mail-Adresse ohne ausdrückliche Einwilligung gespeichert werden darf ist streitig. Unseres Erachtens ist dies angesichts der technischen Entwicklungen und der Üblichkeit dieser Kommunikationswege zu bejahen. Dies ist erforderlich, um ein Beschäftigungsverhältnis begründen zu können. An dieser Ausgangssituation ändert sich auch durch die Geltung der Datenschutzgrundverordnung und des neuen § 26 Bundesdatenschutzgesetzes (BDSG) ab dem 25.05.2018 nichts.

Über die Zulässigkeit der Anforderung der privaten Mobilnummer im bereits bestehenden Arbeitsverhältnis hatte jüngst der 6. Senat des LAG Thüringen in zwei Fällen entschieden (Urteile vom 16.05.2018 – 6 Sa 442/17; 6 Sa 444/17). Der beklagte Arbeitgeber – ein kommunales Gesundheitsamt – hatte von Arbeitnehmern die private Mobilnummer angefordert, um die Arbeitnehmer auch außerhalb des Bereitschaftsdienstes im Notfall erreichen zu können. Zwei Arbeitnehmer haben dieser Anweisung keine Folge geleistet und wurden hierfür abgemahnt. Die Entfernung dieser Abmahnungen aus der Personalakte war Gegenstand der beiden Verfahren.

Nach dem 6. Senat konnte letztlich offen bleiben, ob überhaupt eine Anspruchsgrundlage für die Herausgabe der privaten Mobilnummer bestünde. Jedenfalls sei ein Anspruch durch das Thüringer Landesdatenschutzgesetz begrenzt. Die Herausgabe der privaten Mobilnummer stelle einen erheblichen Eingriff in das Recht auf informationelles Selbstbestimmung dar, welcher durch ein berechtigtes Interesse des Arbeitgebers gerechtfertigt sein müsse. Der anzustellende Abwägungsprozess müsse ergeben, dass der Eingriff angemessen sei. Dabei ist nach dem Gericht zu berücksichtigen, dass eine Pflicht zur Bekanntgabe der privaten Mobilnummer besonders tief in die persönliche Sphäre des Arbeitnehmers eingreift. Auf Grund der ständigen Erreichbarkeit könne sich der Arbeitnehmer dem Arbeitgeber nicht mehr ohne Rechtfertigungsdruck entziehen und so nicht zur Ruhe kommen. Es komme hierbei auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit, tatsächlich kontaktiert und im Notfall herangezogen zu werden, nicht an. Der Arbeitgeber habe hier durch die Änderung des bestehenden Systems der Rufbereitschaft selbst die Problemlage herbeigeführt und ihm stünden auch andere Möglichkeiten zur Absicherung gegen Notfälle zur Verfügung.

Praxistipp

Die beiden Urteile des LAG Thüringen, die bislang nur als Pressemitteilung vorliegen, dürften stark auf die Umstände der konkret entschiedenen Sachverhalte zugeschnitten sein. Die vorgenommene Abwägung ist aber auch über das Thüringer Landesdatenschutzgesetz hinaus im Rahmen des Bundesdatenschutzgesetzes vorzunehmen. Ein genereller Ausschluss der Anforderung der privaten Mobilfunknummer durch den Arbeitgeber und deren datenmäßige Verarbeitung besteht danach sicher nicht. Es ist in jedem Einzelfall zu prüfen, ob die Anforderung der privaten Mobilnummer tatsächlich für die Durchführung des Beschäftigungsverhältnisses erforderlich ist. Eine generelle Anforderung einer Mobilfunknummer wird wohl nicht erforderlich sein. Datenschutzrechtlich vorsichtige Arbeitgeber werden sich im Zweifel eine Einwilligung vom Arbeitnehmer zur Verarbeitung der privaten Mobilnummer geben lassen. Die Entscheidungen mahnen Arbeitgeber zur Vorsicht. Die in der Praxis weit verbreitete und scheinbar normale Anforderung und Verarbeitung einer privaten Mobilfunknummer ist datenschutzrechtlich keineswegs immer unbedenklich und eine Selbstverständlichkeit". Angesichts der seit dem 25.05.2018 geltenden Datenschutzgrundverordnung drohen bei insoweit rechtswidriger Datenverarbeitung unter anderen empfindliche Geldbußen. Die beiden Entscheidungen zeigen darüber hinaus einmal mehr, wie sehr das Datenschutzrecht mittlerweile in der klassischen" Arbeitsrechts- und Personalpraxis angekommen ist.

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