Germany: Bavarian Data Protection Authority Issues New Guidance Paper On Handling Personal Data Breaches Under The General Data Protection Regulation

On 19 September 2016, the Bavarian Data Protection Authority ("DPA") issued a new guidance paper on handling personal data breaches under the new EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in the course of a series of non-binding guidance papers on selected topics in relation to the GDPR, which the DPA publishes periodically. The papers can be found on the DPA's official website.

Starting Point: Current Legal Framework

The DPA states that there are a number of ways how personal data might fall into unauthorized hands. Already under the current legal framework, unauthorized access to personal data – colloquially: "data breaches" – has to be notified; however, only under certain circumstances. Pursuant to Section 42a of the Federal Data Protection Act (Bundesdatenschutzgesetz – BDSG), two requirements need to be fulfilled in order to trigger the obligation to notify:

  1. The personal data affected must be very sensitive data, such as bank and health data.
  2. There must be a high risk for the data subject affected, i.e., there must be a threat of severe obstructions.

In the view of the DPA, those requirements lead to the result that to date, only a very low number of breaches are notified. The yearly amount of such notifications is in a two-digit range. However, the DPA takes the view that it is very likely that a considerable number of undetected, and therefore non-notified, breaches exists. If a breach that triggers the obligation to notify has occurred, the affected data subject also needs to be informed.

Legal Framework under the GDPR: Clearly Lower Thresholds

The GDPR regulates handling of personal data breaches in Articles 33 and 34. Under the GDPR, a graduated system of notification obligations exists:

  1. The general rule is that a personal data breach shall be notified to the competent supervisory authority, "unless the personal data breach is unlikely to result in a risk" of natural persons.
  2. However, the communication of the relevant personal data breach to the data subject is only required if the personal data breach is likely to result in a "high risk" for the right in freedoms of natural persons.

    Further, a communication to the data subject shall not be required if the controller has implemented appropriate technical and organizational protection measures, in particular those that render the personal data unintelligible to any person who is not authorized to access it, such as encryption.

    The same shall apply, if the controller has taken subsequent measures which ensure that the high risk to the rights and freedoms, which existed at the time of the data breach, is no longer likely to materialize. The DPA emphasizes that the supervisory authorities have to clarify how this scenario can be handled in daily practise.

Should each Personal Data Breach be Notified to the Supervisory Authority?

The DPA has compared the English and the German version of the GDPR. In the DPA's view, this comparison leads to the conclusion that as a general rule, each data breach shall be notified to the competent supervisory authority, "unless the personal data breach is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons" (German version: "es sei denn, dass die Verletzung des Schutzes personenbezogener Daten voraussichtlich nicht zu einem Risiko für die Rechte und Freiheiten natürlicher Personen führt").

The DPA presumes that the correct assessment of this requirement might be challenging for enterprises, since in the majority of cases it cannot be ruled out that such risk exists. Accordingly, the DPA expects that the supervisory authorities will coordinate the criteria for a proper risk analysis and the obligation to notify.

Scope and Date of the Notification

The notification needs to be filed with the competent supervisory authority within 72 hours. An extension of this deadline shall be possible only in justified cases. A notification pursuant to Article 33 GDPR shall comprise inter alia the following:

  • The nature of the personal data breach
  • The categories of personal data records concerned
  • The number of data subjects and data records
  • An estimate of the consequences for the data subject, as well as the measures to be taken or proposed to be taken by the controller to address the personal data breach, or measures to mitigate its possible adverse effects

Companies are Called-on to Comply with Obligation to Notify

The DPA emphasizes that companies should observe the obligation to notify. This shall be true in particular in the light of the fact that administrative fines might be imposed on the company in case of non-compliance. The administrative fines might amount up to EUR 10 million or 2% of the relevant company's turnover (see our blog on the DPA's guidance paper on sanctions under the GDPR).


The DPA explains that the consequences of personal data breaches are very difficult to calculate and might not only result in a loss of confidence by customers and reputation by business partners, but might also lead to a high risk of financial losses. Accordingly, the DPA takes the view that an active and comprehensive collaboration with the supervisory authority does not only contribute to mitigation of such losses, but also ensures that the affected data subjects will be properly informed.

The DPA eagerly awaits the further developments in this context. In particular, it remains to be seen whether data controllers will comply with the new notification requirements, and how the supervisory authorities will deal with the likely increase of notifications and workload.

Finally, the DPA announces that it is in the course of developing an online service for data controllers that shall enable an efficient notification procedure.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Mondaq Advice Centre (MACs)
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.