France: Réforme de l'assurance chômage : présentation des principales mesures

Last Updated: 8 July 2019
Article by Sara Bellahouel
Most Read Contributor in France, July 2019

Après la réforme du code du travail initiée par les ordonnances Macron du 22 septembre 20171 et la réforme du système d'apprentissage et de formation professionnelle issue de la Loi Avenir du 5 septembre 20182, la réforme de l'assurance chômage constitue un volet supplémentaire de la « transformation profonde » du marché du travail portée par Emmanuel Macron depuis deux ans.

Conformément à l'annonce faite en février dernier, le Gouvernement a repris la main sur cet épineux sujet après l'échec des négociations avec les partenaires sociaux avec pour ambition d'arriver à terme « au plein emploi » 3. Le Premier ministre Édouard Philippe et la ministre du Travail Muriel Pénicaud ont dévoilé lors d'une conférence de presse du 18 juin 2019 les grandes lignes de cette réforme, qui fera l'objet d'un décret publié d'ici la fin de l'été.

Présentation succincte des principales mesures.

  1. Entreprises : sanctions financières pour limiter le recours aux contrats courts

Bonus-malus pour les entreprises sur les contrats courts

Le Gouvernement prévoit de mettre en place un système de bonus-malus sur les cotisations patronales d'assurance chômage en fonction du nombre de recours aux CDD et aux missions d'intérim, qui devrait être applicable à compter du 1er janvier 2021, en fonction des comportements de chaque entreprise pendant l'année 2020.

Ce système ne concernerait toutefois que les entreprises de plus de 11 salariés appartenant à l'un des 7 secteurs d'activités suivants, identifiés comme ayant le plus grand nombre de fins de contrats de travail : fabrication de denrées alimentaires, de boissons et de produits à base de tabac ; autres activités spécialisées, scientifiques et techniques ; hébergement et restauration ; production et distribution d'eau-assainissement, gestion des déchets et dépollution ; transports et entreposage ; fabrication de produits en caoutchouc et en plastique, et d'autres produits non métalliques ; travail du bois, industrie du papier et imprimerie. A noter que le Gouvernement se réserve la possibilité de généraliser ultérieurement cette mesure à tous les secteurs d'activité.

Le montant de la cotisation d'assurance chômage, actuellement de 4,05%, varierait entre 3% (pour les bons élèves) et 5% (pour les mauvais élèves) en fonction de la pratique de l'entreprise.

Une taxe forfaitaire des CDD d'usage

A compter du 1er janvier 2020, une taxe forfaitaire de 10 euros serait due par les entreprises pour chaque CDD d'usage (à l'exclusion des employeurs d'intermittents du spectacle qui ne sont pas concernés par cette mesure).

  1. Salariés et demandeurs d'emploi : des restrictions de droits

Un durcissement de l'accès des salariés à l'indemnisation chômage

Il est prévu qu'à compter du 1er novembre 2019, les salariés devront travailler plus longtemps pour ouvrir leurs droits à l'assurance chômage. Un salarié devra avoir travaillé au moins 6 mois sur les 24 derniers mois, au lieu de 4 mois sur les 28 derniers mois selon les règles actuellement applicables.

Pour les demandeurs d'emploi, le seuil minimal pour recharger ses droits à indemnisation passerait également à 6 mois d'activité au lieu de 1 mois selon les règles aujourd'hui applicables.

Une refonte des règles d'indemnisation

Une révision globale des règles de calcul des indemnités chômage est prévue à compter du 1er avril 2020. L'objectif de cette refonte est que les indemnités chômage ne puissent jamais dépasser le montant du salaire net mensuel moyen (ce qui est actuellement le cas pour une partie des bénéficiaires), sans pouvoir être inférieures à 65% du salaire net mensuel moyen. Les indemnités chômage seraient calculées sur le revenu mensuel moyen du travail, et non plus sur les seuls jours travaillés comme c'est le cas aujourd'hui.

Une dégressivité des allocations chômages élevées

À partir du 1er novembre 2019, une dégressivité des allocations chômage s'appliquerait pour les salariés touchant plus de 4.500 € brut par mois, alors que le niveau d'indemnisation est actuellement constant pendant toute la période d'indemnisation pour tous les niveaux de revenu. Selon cette nouvelle règle, au bout de 6 mois d'indemnisation, l'allocation diminuera de 30 %, sans toutefois pouvoir être inférieure à 2 261 € net.

Cette mesure ne concernerait pas les demandeurs d'emploi âgés d'au moins 57 ans.

  1. Salariés et demandeurs d'emploi : de nouveaux droits

Un renforcement de l'accompagnement des demandeurs d'emploi

Le Gouvernement a annoncé un renforcement des mesures d'accompagnement des demandeurs d'emploi et des moyens alloués à cette mission à Pôle Emploi, applicable à compter du 1er janvier 2020.

Droit à l'assurance chômage après une démission pour réaliser un projet professionnel

Le Gouvernement a confirmé cette mesure adoptée par la loi Avenir professionnel et prévoit son entrée en application au 1er novembre 2019 : les salariés ayant au moins 5 ans d'ancienneté dans leur entreprise auraient droit à l'assurance chômage quand ils démissionneraient pour réaliser un projet professionnel. Ce droit pourrait être renouvelé tous les 5 ans (soit un maximum de 8 fois sur une vie professionnelle de 40 ans).

Droit à l'assurance chômage pour les travailleurs indépendants

Conformément aux dispositions de la loi Avenir professionnel, les travailleurs indépendants confrontés à la liquidation judiciaire de leur entreprise seraient éligibles à une indemnisation mensuelle de 800 euros pendant 6 mois, à la condition que leur activité ait généré un revenu minimum de 10.000 euros par an sur les deux dernières années précédant la liquidation judiciaire. Cette mesure serait applicable à compter du 1er novembre 2019.

Footnotes

1 Sur les ordonnances Macron, voir notamment notre article intitulé « La déjudiciarisation des rapports de travail par les ordonnances Macron » de mars 2018.

2Loi n° 2018-771 du 5 septembre 2018 « pour la liberté de choisir son avenir professionnel »

3 Conférence de presse de M. Édouard Philippe, Premier ministre : Présentation de la réforme de l'assurance chômage, en date du 18 juin 2019.

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