France: En quoi consiste le lancement d'alertes?

Last Updated: 18 March 2019
Article by Karin Henriksson

En quoi consiste le lancement d'alertes? Le lancement d'alertes est un terme utilisé lorsqu'une personne transmet des informations concernant des actes répréhensibles tels que la corruption, le harcèlement sexuel... On peut alors parler de « lancer l'alerte », « effectuer un signalement », « faire un rapport d'alerte », etc. En général, la personne est étroitement liée à l'organisation, souvent un employé, mais il s'agit parfois d'un prestataire ou d'un client. Elle devient un lanceur d'alerte lorsqu'elle observe des comportements ou des actes qui, selon elle, constituent des fautes, qu'elles sont illégales et non conformes au Code de Conduite de la société, et qu'elle signale ce soupçon en lançant une alerte.

Le lancement d'alerte peut avoir lieu au sein d'une organisation ou publiquement

Le lancement d'alerte organisationnel : est un outil de prévention pour les organisations qui leur permet de réduire les risques d'abus et d'irrégularités. Le fait d'habiliter les employés et autres parties prenantes concernés à lancer des alertes augmente les chances des dirigeants d'obtenir des informations sur des irrégularités qu'ils auraient dû traiter avant. Les organisations qui prennent au sérieux leur Code de Conduite mettront donc en place des mécanismes qui permettent le lancement d'alerte organisationnel, tel qu'un système ou une hotline d'alerte interne sécurisé (e) et une politique ou des lignes de conduite en matière de lancement d'alerte.

Le lancement d'alertes public : Dans les organisations dans lesquelles la confiance est faible, les mécanismes susmentionnés n'existent pas, ou il n'est pas possible d'être un lanceur d'alerte anonyme : la personne aura plutôt tendance à lancer une alerte publiquement. Cela peut inclure un signalement à la police, aux médias ou sur les réseaux sociaux, ce qui présente évidemment un risque plus élevé pour l'image des organisations. En revanche, dans certains cas, il existe un devoir de lancement d'alerte auprès d'une organisation professionnelle ou d'une autorité de régulation.

Que peut-on considérer comme un lancement d'alerte ?

Les points de vue diffèrent d'une organisation à l'autre, et la législation en matière de protection des lanceurs d'alertes donne des définitions différentes des motifs de lancement d'alertes d'un pays à l'autre. La liste suivante est un exemple pour le Royaume-Uni, mais ces éléments sont largement reconnus comme des motifs de lancement d'alerte.

  • une infraction pénale, par exemple la fraude ou la corruption
  • un risque d'atteinte à la santé et à la sécurité d'une personne
  • un risque d'atteinte ou une atteinte à l'environnement avérée
  • une erreur judiciaire
  • des formes graves de discrimination ou de harcèlement
  • la société enfreint la loi, par exemple, elle n'a pas souscrit l'assurance nécessaire
  • il existe des soupçons quant au fait que quelqu'un couvre des actes répréhensibles

Pourquoi le lancement d'alertes fait-il tant parler de lui actuellement ?

La montée en puissance du lancement d'alerte a commencé avec la crise financière mondiale de 2007-08, qui a rappelé au monde entier la nécessité de réprimer la corruption dans les entreprises. Par ailleurs, ces deux dernières années, la campagne #Metoo a complètement changé la manière dont les lanceurs d'alertes sont perçus ; auparavant, comme des perturbateurs, maintenant comme des héros.

En conséquence, nous avons constaté que la lutte contre la corruption était renforcée et qu'il était davantage fait pression sur les organisations pour qu'elles permettent aux employés de s'exprimer. En parallèle, de plus en plus de gouvernements mettent en place des législations sur le lancement d'alerte qui rendent obligatoire dans certains cas la mise en place de systèmes d'alerte, ou qui renforcent la protection des lanceurs d'alertes. De fait, de plus en plus d'organisations choisissent de mettre en place des canaux de lancement d'alerte afin de mieux gérer les problèmes en interne et de garantir le respect de la conformité.

Si vous souhaitez en apprendre davantage sur le lancement d'alerte, nous vous invitons à consulter le site https://whistleb.com/fr

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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