China: 京都实务 | 建设工程项目委托建设管理合同要点分析

Last Updated: 9 August 2019
Article by Wu Xinrong

 委托建设管理合同为无名合同,我国《合同法》并未就该类型合同作出明确规定。在实践中,存在大量项目委托建设管理需求,委托方享有土地使用权和建设资金,但苦于缺乏管理能力和专业人员,亟需聘请专业的管理公司对项目进行全过程管理,以确保项目的安全、可控和顺利完工,受托方具有丰富的项目管理经验和专业的技术人员,能够提供专业的管理工作,完成项目的质量、进度、造价等控制目标。

  在笔者团队服务的数个商业银行办公楼及数据中心等项目中,委托建设管理合同被广泛运用,对于建设项目的顺利推进起到了非常关键的作用。综合几个项目的建设管理经验及特点,将委托建设管理合同的法律要点分析总结如下:

  合同主体及 项目主体


  委托建设合同的签约主体一般包括两方,即委托方和受托方。但在建设管理过程中,参建单位主体数量众多,所需签署的合同纷繁复杂。因此,在实践中,关于项目建设过程中的手续办理及合同签约主体是一个比较容易引起疑惑的问题,在对其他参建单位进行招标并签约时,以委托方的名义还是受托方的名义?特别是在项目招标、发包时,有人可能会误以为既然是全过程管理,全部工作均应当以受托人的名义进行,即适用了隐名代理的规则。

  但是,需注意的是,建设工程委托管理项目与普通民事代理不同,从土地使用权取得、立项、建设施工直至获得权属证明,均需按照法律规定办理相关手续,各项证照资料中的建设主体应当保持一致,方能顺利取得不动产登记。如果适用隐名代理,由受托方以其自身名义进行相关活动和签署相关文件,将无法实现代理后果归属于委托方的目的,涉及的相关手续、备案、审批等手续也将无法办理。

  因此,建设工程委托管理项下,项目所涉及的全部手续文件包括土地使用权、立项文件、建设手续等,均需以委托方的名义进行;关于建设过程中所涉及合同的签约主体,除分包合同外,基本上均需以委托方的名义进行招标和签署,以确保项目手续、证照的一致性,确保项目权利归属于委托方。

  委托项目概况


  委托建设管理合同首先应将委托管理的项目概况进行描述,以便于确定具体的管理项目,包括项目名称、建设地点、建设规模、工程概算、建设工期等。这一部分内容也是约定管理目标和对受托方工作完成情况进行考核的依据。

  该部分内容涉及较多专业数据,需要由专业技术人员予以确定,并且应尽可能确保数据的准确性。

  委托内容及工作界面划分


  如前文所述,建设工程项目参与主体众多,所涉事项繁杂,委托方希望将全部事项一并委托受托方进行管理,同时要保留自己的决定权,并尽可能降低管理成本;而受托方在管理过程中,则希望尽可能减少管理事项,并且有可能会在委托方提出的某一项要求时,认为不属于其管理范围而要求增加费用。

  因此,委托建设管理合同中关于委托事项及工作界面划分,是非常关键的内容,需要尽可能予以细化,并且需要在各专业技术人员的协助下,共同进行确定。

  具体而言,如果合同中仅表述为"全过程管理",也并未列明管理报酬明细,双方对于管理范围出现争议的可能性会比较大,特别是大型、复杂的基建项目。其后果,不仅会造成管理酬金成本的增加,还会因双方的分歧对工程进度、质量、造价等造成影响。为避免发生该等情形,建议在合同中对具体的工作阶段和工作内容作出详细和明确的约定,特别是需明确受托方是否需负责全部招投标、 预决算、办理各项开竣工手续、设计及施工管理、室外园林绿化、安防物防系统、精装修直至项目竣工验收、档案整理等。

  此外,针对建设工程项目具有周期长、情况复杂多变的特点,委托方的建设需求也可能处于不断的调整过程中,需对双方的工作界面划分作出进一步明确约定,特别是需明确列明委托方的决定权、监督权、所有权,以及受托方关于变更、停工、增加成本等涉及到工程质量、工期、造价等方面的权限,明确约定相关事项均需事先取得委托方的书面同意方可实施,隐蔽工程验收需提前通知委托方到场参加。除与工作进度、质量、造价相关的重要事项外,各项工作报告、档案资料的归集及移交等义务极易被忽视,但实际上建设完成后这些看似"无足轻重"的事项,却往往成为竣工手续办理、双方结算移交的障碍,并且有可能持续数年而难以解决。

  设目标


  建设目标为考核受托人是否依约完成受托工作的重要标准,需要在合同中作出明确的约定。其中,至少应当包括工程质量标准、交付标准、交付时间、造价控制目标等。

  关于工程质量标准,除按照一般标准约定为"合格"外,如果存在更高的质量标准或要求,应当作出明确的约定,例如是否需确保取得鲁班奖或获得LEED认证等,相应的,在违约责任条款则需要考虑,如果因受托方的原因导致未能达到工程质量目标,是否需支付违约金或扣减管理报酬。

  关于交付标准,需注意明确是毛坯交付还是精装修交付,这一点不仅关系到交付的质量,也与进度控制和造价控制、管理报酬具有直接的关联性,在实践中较易出现约定不清的情形。

  关于进度控制,需要注意的是,在建设过程中,双方的沟通、审批、答复等期限,是影响进度的重要因素,也可能是双方责任划分的关键因素,需在合同中对于委托方的审批、答复期限以及受托方提出申请、报告的时间要求,作出尽可能明确的约定。实践中,为避免疑义,一般还会在合同之外另行制作详细的工作流程,双方应严格按照流程发起、完成各项工作。

  关于造价控制,是一项非常重要的管理事项,特别是对于使用国有资金的建设项目,造价控制显得尤为重要,需对控制目标、确保工程质量前提下的节约成本、降低造价的义务等作出明确约定,相应的在违约责任条款中也需要就委托方原因导致的成本增加或者虽然总成本未增加但建设过程中存在可节约成本但未节约情形时受托方的违约责任。如果双方达成一致的,也可在合同中约定对于受托方在合理范围内降低造价节约成本的奖励,以提高受托方的积极性。

  建设项目资金的支付


  在委托建设管理项目中,建设资金由委托方拨付,并由受托方按照工程建设需求提出付款申请,由委托方直接对外支付。为确保资金的安全性,一般需根据项目需求及委托方的内部管理规定,制作建设资金拨付流程,双方需严格按照相关审批和支付流程,开展资金的拨付及支付工作。

  此外,由于建设过程中绝大多数合同的签约主体、付款主体为委托方,基于合同的相对性原则,一旦发生逾期付款情形,承担违约责任的主体为委托方。因此,在委托建设管理合同中,需特别强调受托方应确保按照合同约定的付款期限提前向委托方发起付款申请流程,如果由受托方造成的任何违约及损失、责任等均应由受托方承担。但需要特别注意的是,受托方发起付款申请的时间要求,必须充分考虑到委托方的内部管理及审批、支付流程,为委托方预留充足的时间。

  除上述事项,委托建设管理合同中还需对发票管理事项予以关注,明确约定委托方对发票的具体要求。

 委托管理酬金


  由于建设工程项目进度具有不可控的特点,在各种因素的影响下,非常容易出现变更及延期的情况,无法按照计划工期完工的可能性非常高。因此,委托建设管理合同的管理酬金,除小型工程外,大部分是按照工作时间计算费用的。

  关于酬金的计算,需要特别关注的是,随着工程进度推进,受托方的工作量和投入人员等,会出现一个递减的趋势,如果委托建设管理合同续签时,管理酬金的计算,需提示测算成本的人员予以注意,是否需对管理酬金的单价进行调整。

  关于酬金的支付,在实践中受托方比较倾向于按月或者按季度支付。但该种支付方式对于委托方存在成本不可控的风险,并且属于支付"期限"而非支付"条件",与受托方的工作完成情况脱钩。因此,需综合考虑双方的需求,按照建设进度支付约定比例酬金的方式比较适宜。

  结语


  以上为委托建设管理合同中所涉及主要法律问题的分析。由于建设工程项目的专业性、复杂性及多变性,本文仅就其中部分关键事项进行了概括,并未涵盖全部内容,在实际工作中所拟定的合同文本,需就所涉及全部事项及相关细节作出尽可能详细的约定。

  一份专业的合同,离不开各专业的通力合作,在合同制定过程中,需要前期、建设施工、造价、招投标等专业技术人员确定相关技术指标及要求。

  一份完美的合同,是律师心血的凝结。合同作为法律文件,不能将相关技术人员提供的数据简单堆砌,而是需要律师统筹规划,将这些技术语言转化为法律语言,将各专业之间零散、无关联的数据整合为具有高度逻辑性、关联性、协调配合性的合同条款。在这一过程中,律师是合同搭建的"工程师"。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions