China: 京都实务 | 浅析商业银行"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务的风险防范

Last Updated: 9 August 2019
Article by Meng Bing and Yao Jiadi

商业银行与房地产开发商合作,由商业银行为购买房地产项目的购房人提供"个人住房按揭贷款",是一项十分常见的银行业务。但在近期为商业银行提供法律服务的过程中,我们关注到商业银行出现了一类新的贷款业务,即"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务。那么什么是"住房配套仓储"?与传统的"个人住房按揭贷款"业务相比,商业银行办理"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务的风险点是什么?商业银行又如何进行风险防范呢?

"住房配套仓储"并不是一个法律概念,也未见住宅设计规范中对其有明确的定义。经了解,"住房配套仓储"常见于房屋工程规划阶段,所指"仓储"并不是说住宅用地上建设了类似工业用地上仓储一类的独立建筑,而是指住宅中部分房屋的功能和用途为仓储,通常指的是用途为仓储的住宅地下室或半地下室。

明确了什么是"住房配套仓储",那么"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务的风险点在哪里呢?首先让我们看一下此类银行业务产生的背景。

"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务的产生背景,是由于政府对于住房售价限价政策的不断出台,开发商也随之调整了售房方式,在仅受市场调节的高房价时期,开发商对于住房配套仓储一般不进行买卖,而是直接赠送给购房人。在此种情况下,按揭贷款只针对购房者购买的地上部分的住宅,地下的住房配套仓储部分并不在提供按揭贷款的范围内,即也不在商业银行要求购房人为按揭贷款所提供的抵押担保范围之内。而在住房售价限价后,为拉低房价,开发商将住房配套仓储也作为交易对象,需由购房人进行购买。此时,商业银行为购房人提供按揭贷款的范围也随之变为地上部分住宅和地下部分的住房配套仓储。面对此类新业务,虽然商业银行在与房地产开发商进行合作时,会在合作协议中最大可能的降低自身风险,将"可取得合法销售(预售)许可"和"可办理不动产权证书"作为住房配套仓储纳入双方合作范围的条件,并以此作为与房地产开发商进行此类贷款业务合作的前提。但在双方合作时,如果房地产项目尚在建设中,即商业银行对于住房配套仓储是否可销售,以及住房配套仓储是否能取得产权证均为未知状态,并不能排除未来商业银行无法取得住房配套仓储抵押权的可能,此即"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务最大的风险。

了解了风险点以后,商业银行如何防范呢?

首先,商业银行在合作前要对房地产项目的工程规划文件进行必要的核查,以从根本上把控风险。

为从根本上保证"住房配套仓储"的合法性,建议商业银行在与房地产开发商达成"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务合作前,要求房地产开发商提供该房地产项目的土地及工程规划许可文件,核查土地用途是否为住宅用地,核查工程规划指标中是否存在地下部分,及对应规划图纸中对于地下部分的规划用途,如确实存在地下室或半地下室的工程规划,则进一步确认地下室或半地下室为以下哪种类型,以确定所有权是否由房地产开发商享有:

  人防地下室

《中华人民共和国人民防空法(2009修订)》第二十二条规定:"城市新建民用建筑,按照国家有关规定修建战时可用于防空的地下室。"而根据《物权法》第五十二条规定:"国防资产属于国家所有。"因此,住宅出于人防目的而建设的地下室为国家资产,房地产开发商不享有所有权。

  计入公用建筑面积的地下室

《物权法》第七十三条规定,建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。如地下室为已计入公用建筑面积的地下室,则所有权应属于全体业主所有。

  独立使用功能的地下室

原建设部发布的《商品房销售面积计算及公用建筑面积分摊规则(试行)》第九条规定:"凡已作为独立使用空间销售或出租的地下室、车棚等,不应计入公用建筑面积部分。作为人防工程的地下室也不计入公用建筑面积。"

此外,在北京市住房和城乡建设委员会房屋权属处发布的《关于商品房销售及商品房配套用房转移登记有关问题的通知》(以下简称《通知》)中所提到:"规划设计为独立使用功能的地下室、半地下室,已取得建设工程规划许可证、交纳土地出让金的,房屋权属登记部门可以为购房人办理转移登记。房屋设计用途按建设工程规划许可证批准的用途填写。"

根据《通知》内容可知,房地产开发商取得住房配套仓储的所有权需满足以下几个前提:1.排除了人防地下室以及计入公共建筑面积的地下室,必须是规划设计为独立使用功能的地下室、半地下室;2.已取得建设工程规划许可证,即已完成工程规划审批,在工程规划中已明确规划为地下室或半地下室;3.已履行了土地出纳金的交纳义务。以上条件全部满足才意味着房地产开发商可以依法取得地下室或半地下室的所有权,可以依法进行买卖并办理所有权转移登记。

故以上三种类型的地下室,只有第三类符合商业银行办理"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务的要求。

其次,建议商业银行在与房地产开发商签署的合作协议中,明确房地产开发商的阶段性担保责任,在商业银行在取得借款人所购房产的产权证,办理完毕抵押登记之前,可要求房地产开发商承担此阶段的不可撤销的连带责任保证,以降低商业银行因购房人无法取得住房配套仓储的房产证,导致商业银行无法办理抵押登记取得抵押权的风险。

再次,商业银行在办理每一单具体的"个人住房及其配套仓储按揭贷款"业务时,还要注意审查开发商与购房人签订的全套合同文件,关注其中是否有特殊约定,注意该等约定是否会对以后银行行权造成任何不利影响,以做到防患于未然。

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