China: 保险行业劳动争议分析报告发布 是否存在劳动关系成焦点

Last Updated: 9 August 2019
Article by Jia Baojun

近些年,随着人们保险意识的增强,保险行业迎来行业发展的快速阶段,保险行业由于用工基数大,员工流动性大等情况,一直以来是劳动争议高发的行业。

为了解保险公司劳动争议情况,我们在无讼案例网和中国裁判文书网上输入检索关键字"保险公司"、"劳动争议、人事争议",将地区限定在保险公司劳动争议最高发的四个地区,分别是:北京市、上海市、江苏省、广东省。检索出2015-2018年间"保险公司劳动纠纷"涉诉案例有779件。经过对于无关联案例、重复案例、多人就一案由诉讼等无效案例的剔除,得到54例有效案例。

保险公司劳动纠纷主要争议点有四个,分别是员工与保险公司之间是否成立劳动关系、工资酬劳及福利待遇的发放、培训费用相关争议、解除劳动合同是否合法及经济补偿金。

员工与保险公司之间是否成立劳动关系

确认劳动关系纠纷数量示例图

在所选54例判决中,涉及确认劳动关系的纠纷数量达24件,占比44%。从涉诉案例看,争议岗位集中在保单递送员、组训、电话销售员上。主要争议在于是形成劳动关系还是委托代理关系。《保险法》承认个人保险代理人的法律地位,保险销售从业人员中代理制人员占比很高,尤其是个险渠道。个人保险代理人与保险公司之间建立的是委托代理关系,订立的是保险代理合同而非劳动合同,这是保险公司与其他用人单位的最大不同之处。

案例一:[1]方某为保险公司电话销售员,底薪3500元另加提成,双方订立有《电话行销保险委托代理协议》。发生争议后法院认为:方某在保险公司指定的工作场所从事电话销售工作,保险公司对方某实行指纹考勤并按月支付劳动报酬,故虽然双方签订《电话行销保险委托代理协议》,但实际形成的是劳动关系。

案例二:[2]张某某为保险公司保单递送员,双方订立了代理合同并明确约定不构成劳动合同关系。发生争议后法院认为双方之间成立劳动关系,理由是:张某某接受保险公司日常考勤、请假的管理,保险公司按月支付张某某工资,且张某某提供的业务为保险公司重要的业务内容,双方在合同中的约定并不能否认双方之间系劳动关系的实质;《中国保险监督管理委员会关于个人保险代理人法律地位复函》的适用对象为个人保险代理人而非保单递送员。

案例三:[3]艾某某在保险公司任组训(讲师、职场辅导员),在公司办公室负责上下班考勤、晨会、各类报表、业务员的管理培训等工作,与保险公司签订了《保险营销员保险代理合同(A类)》,其劳动报酬由基本工资、绩效工资、职场辅导员津贴及部分保险代理手续费组成,按月发放。发生争议后法院认为:艾某某自进入保险公司均是按公司安排实行八小时上下班,并按公司安排担任组训(讲师、职场辅导员),其工作内容不能自行作决定;艾某某的劳动报酬主要是由基本工资、职场辅导员津贴、绩效工资组成,而非依据保险业务代理量计提手续费......双方存在事实上的劳动关系。

法院主要从以下四个方面来认定委托代理关系而非劳动合同关系:

1.劳动关系的建立应以用人单位与劳动者存在建立劳动关系的意思表示为前提条件,保险公司与业务员双方之间签订的是《人身保险业务个人代理协议》、《客户服务专员人身保险代理合同》、《服务营销客户经理人身保险代理合同》(当然还有其他的代理合同)等,上述合同中无一例外都约定了:"本合同仅构成双方的保险代理关系,在任何时候均不构成双方之间的劳动关系或劳务关系","甲方根据乙方代理销售的保险合同的保险费收入支付乙方委托报酬;甲方每月根据乙方上一个月的代理销售保险合同的业务情况向其支付委托报酬"等条款。

2.保险公司按照代理人的规章制度在代理期限内对业务员实施管理考核,业务员则开展包括存量客户服务、新保增员在内的保险业务工作,其报酬包含服务佣金、新保佣金等,且报酬存在计算系数,每月浮动并不固定,保险公司发给业务员的薪酬也明确为佣金,且是根据双方的代理合同和保险公司的相关制度计算的,薪金的组成部分,实际上就是原告的业务提成,每月领取的薪金均不等,并非是完成一定工作量相对稳定的收入,也不受国家最低工资约束。

3.保险公司与业务员之间并未签订书面劳动合同,法律实务中,业务员很难提供其为保险公司提供劳务并接受保险公司管理、指挥与监督,以及保险公司为其缴纳社会保险费、支付工资的相关证据。所以事实劳动关系也难以认定。

4.《中华人民共和国保险法》第一百一十二条 保险公司应当建立保险代理人登记管理制度,加强对保险代理人的培训和管理,不得唆使、诱导保险代理人进行违背诚信义务的活动。且双方签订的《保险代理合同》亦有对相关会议、培训等的要求。所以,不能因为保险公司对保险代理人的考勤、培训、奖惩管理等就认定双方之间存在从属性。

综上所述,保险代理合同的内容和实际履行情况均不符合劳动关系的特征,保险公司与业务员之间属于民事代理关系,而非劳动关系。

工资酬劳及福利待遇的发放

工资酬劳及福利待遇纠纷数量示例图

在所选54例判决中,涉及工资酬劳及福利待遇的纠纷数量达48件,占比88%。保险公司工资酬劳争议多发生在销售岗,因为销售岗的工资多与其所完成的销售工作量挂钩。在工资酬劳有关的纠纷中充分举证对于胜诉尤其重要。一般来说与工资争议有关的证据多由有人单位掌握,所以其在诉讼中承担举证责任(如案例一),但是在销售岗位上,由于保单业绩都经员工经手,对于员工来说获取自己的工作业绩并不是难事,员工也要承担初步的举证责任(如案例二)。

案例一:[4]张晓衡于2008年4月11日入职渤海财产保险公司北京分公司,双方分别签订有期限为2008年4月11日至2009年4月10日、2009年4月11日至2011年4月10日的劳动合同。双方最后一次签订的是自2011年4月1日起的无固定期限劳动合同。张晓衡在渤海财产保险公司北京分公司工作至2012年12月31日,其工资亦支付至2012年12月31日。发生争议后法院认为:发生劳动争议,当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。与争议事项有关的证据属于用人单位掌握管理的,用人单位应当提供;用人单位不提供的,应当承担不利后果。关于张晓衡的工资标准和工资差额,渤海财产保险公司北京分公司作为用人单位,应当对张晓衡的工资标准和工资支付情况提交相应的证据予以证实。渤海财产保险公司北京分公司虽主张张晓衡的工资标准存在变化以及因张晓衡未达到绩效考核标准和要求故不应支付绩效工资,但并未就此提交相应的证据予以证实,本院对渤海财产保险公司北京分公司的该项主张不予采信,并据此采信张晓衡关于其工资标准为63000元/年以及渤海财产保险公司北京分公司未足额支付其工资的主张。

案例二:[5]2013年1月,高慧到安华农业保险股份有限公司辽宁分公司,2013年6月1日高慧到安华保险公司,2013年7月1日双方签订为期一年的劳动合同,合同期限从2013年7月1日起至2014年6月30日止,合同约定高慧月工资1300元,安华保险公司每月10日前支付,工作时间执行标准工时,享受五险一金、带薪休年假等法定待遇。除基本工资外,双方还约定安华保险公司按高慧工作业绩,每月支付高慧绩效奖金及其他补助。合同履行期间,高慧未休年假,安华保险公司也未支付年假工资。2014年7月1日,原合同期满后,高慧继续在安华保险公司处工作,安华保险公司却不与高慧续签劳动合同。2015年11月至12月份,安华保险公司以高慧销售等级达到上限为借口,不让高慧上业务,接连两个月未给高慧开工资。高慧认为安华保险公司的上述行为侵犯劳动者合法权益,遂向安华保险公司提出离职,安华保险公司却无理由拖延不给高慧办理离职手续。2016年2月15日,安华保险公司与高慧补签一份劳动合同,合同履行期限到2017年,其后,安华保险公司正常支付高慧基本工资,2016年5月安华保险公司单方出具解除劳动合同通知并邮寄给高慧。

发生争议后法院认为:高慧与安华保险公司签订的劳动合同所约定的岗位为销售经理,其工资与其所完成的工作量成正比,这一点从高慧提供的工资表也可以看出,高慧的工资数额并不固定,存在浮动。高慧2015年11月、12月扣除保险后没有工资收入,安华保险公司主张系因为高慧在这期间没有达成的保单,高慧主张该期间存在保单但安华保险公司不录入到单位系统中。对于工作成绩,虽然安华保险公司负有管理及记录的责任,但高慧作为直接经手人,获取自己的工作业绩并不是难事,对于其所主张的上述事实,高慧应尽到初步的举证责任,但其未提供证据证明其11月、12月存在保单,故高慧对此应承担举证不能的法律后果。安华保险公司2015年1月至10月正常为高慧支付工资,高慧于2016年1月提出离职并不在继续上班,但安华保险公司仍按最低工资标准支付高慧2016年1月至6月期间的工资及社会保险,高慧收到以上工资且并未提出异议,同时安华保险公司在高慧不再提供劳动期间所给付的工资总额不低于高慧两个月的职级工资(2,750元/月),综合以上情况,安华保险公司虽未及时发放高慧2015年11月、12月的工资,但从后续的履行及高慧的工资总额上,安华保险公司并不拖欠高慧工资,故对高慧的此项诉讼请求不予支持。

培训费用相关争议

案例一:[5]原、被告于2015年11月3日签订了劳动合同,合同期限至2018年11月2日,并约定双方签订《培训协议》并约定了服务期的,乙方(胥培龙)违反服务期约定的,应当按照约定向甲方支付违约金。原告于2015年12月31日填写了"黄埔计划"第20期组训入职训练班,并于2016年3月17日与被告签订了《培训协议》,协议约定甲方为乙方(胥培龙)支付培训费8000元,住宿费、交通费、餐费、资料费等12000元,共计20000元。约定服务期限为2016年4月30日至2019年4月30日,如在服务期限内,乙方(胥培龙)劳动合同期满,除非甲方决定不再与乙方续签劳动合同,乙方的劳动合同自动顺延至服务期限届满。协议同时对违约赔偿的情形及公司有权从劳动报酬中扣除违约金等进行了约定。2016年11月8日,胥培龙因个人原因向被告提出离职申请。发生争议后法院认为:法院认为用人单位为劳动者提供专项培训费用,对其进行专业技术培训的,可以与该劳动者订立协议,约定服务期。劳动者违反服务期约定的,应当按照约定向用人单位支付违约金。违约金的数额不得超过用人单位提供的培训费用。用人单位要求劳动者支付的违约金不得超过服务期尚未履行部分所应分摊的培训费用。

案例二:[6]2014年2月23日,原、被告签订《劳动合同书》及其《劳动合同补充协议书》,被告入职原告公司。《劳动合同补充协议书》第三项工作时间第1条约定:乙方(被告)自签订本补充协议之日起两年内不得主动离开公司,如在协议期内主动离职,或因违反国家相关法律规定(含劳动法相关规定)被公司主动除名者,公司有权依照公司管理制度处理并追回已发放的财补费用(创业基金),追究其经济或法律责任。2014年2月28日,原告通过银行转账向被告发放工资10655元。同年7月1日,被告因个人身份及家庭等方面原因,不能在原告处正常上班,向原告书面提出辞职申请,原告当天予以批准。发生争议后法院认为:《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》第二十二条规定,用人单位为劳动者提供专项培训费用,对其进行专业技术培训的,可以与该劳动者订立协议,约定服务期。本案中,原告未提供证据证明对被告提供了专项培训费用,对被告进行了专业技术培训,却在《劳动合同补充协议书》中与被告约定服务期,违反法律规定。

综上所述,根据《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》第二十二条规定,用人单位为劳动者提供专项培训费用,对其进行专业技术培训的,可以与该劳动者订立协议,约定服务期。劳动者违反服务期约定的,应当按照约定向用人单位支付违约金。违约金的数额不得超过用人单位提供的培训费用。用人单位要求劳动者支付的违约金不得超过服务期尚未履行部分所应分摊的培训费用。但是用人单位必须举证有过相应的培训费用支出以及事前确实对于培训费以及服务器违约有过相应的约定。

解除劳动合同

解除劳动关系纠纷数量示例图

在所选54例判决中,涉及解除劳动合同的纠纷数量达18件,占比33%。在解除劳动合同引起的纠纷中,第一步会先涉及解除行为系合法或者违法。如果是违法解除则会涉及赔偿金和是否恢复用工关系。如果是合法解除则会涉及经济补偿金的计算。在解除合同纠纷中往往还会涉及工资薪酬及福利待遇的欠发及相关经济补偿。数据显示:在解除劳动合同的纠纷案件中,单位败诉多因为事实举证不足。

案例一:[7]2013年6月24日,路通与联合经纪公司签订了《劳动合同》,其中约定:合同期限为2013年6月24日至2016年6月23日;路通担任市场中心管理岗岗位,每月工资为1万元,月度绩效为0至1.5万元。路通主张其月工资标准为2.5万元,公司与其约定2014年年终奖为7.5万元。为此,路通提交了2014年3月的《薪酬调整沟通函》,基本内容为:根据路通过往的业绩表现与公司薪酬政策,自2014年4月1日起将路通的薪酬按调整后的标准执行,月度基本工资和月度绩效工资均为1.25万元(月度合计2.5万元)不做调整,目标年终奖由2.5万元调整为7.5万元。联合经纪公司认可该沟通函的真实性,但提出该函为双方沟通协商之用,非确认函,因路通不胜任岗位工作,不符合发放2014年年终奖的条件。2015年6月9日,联合经纪公司向路通出具了《辞退证明》,主要内容为:因路通不能胜任市场中心管理岗位工作及违反公司相关规章制度,经沟通未果,该公司于2015年6月9日与路通正式解除劳动关系。发生争议后法院认为:用人单位违法解除劳动关系,劳动者不要求继续履行劳动合同的,用人单位应当依法支付赔偿金。本案中,联合经纪公司主张路通不胜任市场中心管理岗位的工作,但对此未提交有效证据予以证明,本院对其主张不予采信,其以此为由与路通解除劳动关系亦不符合法律规定。联合经纪公司未举证证明其提交的规章制度系经过民主程序制订,该公司以路通严重违反公司的规章制度为由而解除劳动关系缺乏合法的制度依据,且其主张路通存在违纪行为的事实依据亦不充分,因此,本院认定其属于违法解除,应向路通支付赔偿金77556元(6463元*3*2个月*2倍)。

案例二:[8]吴晓坤于2010年4月入职国泰保险江苏公司,最后一期劳动合同期限自2013年4月1日至2016年3月31日。2013年12月6日,国泰保险江苏公司向吴晓坤发出解除劳动合同通知,于当日解除与吴晓坤的劳动关系。吴晓坤认为国泰保险江苏公司是违法解除劳动合同,遂于2013年12月13日提起劳动争议仲裁,国泰保险江苏公司不服仲裁裁决结果,遂向原审法院提起诉讼。发生争议后法院认为:国泰保险江苏公司单方解除与吴晓坤的劳动合同,应对解除劳动合同的事由成立负举证责任。国泰保险江苏公司提供的证据不足以证明吴晓坤存在虚假批增批减保单被保险雇员,严重违反公司的规章制度的行为,应承担举证不能的法律后果。因此,原审判决国泰保险江苏公司支付吴晓坤经济赔偿金并无不当。

注释:

[1]上海市第一中级人民法院(2014)沪一中民三(民)终字第1324号民事判决书

[2]北京市第三中级人民法院(2015)三中民终字第05679号民事判决书

[3](2015)开民一初字第103号民事判决书

[4](2016)京02民终2336号

[5](2017)辽01民终2600号

[6](2017)苏0724民初1802号

[7](2015)朝民初字第52640号

[8](2014)宁民终字第5234号

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