China: 《商标法》、《反不正当竞争法》2019年最新修改

Last Updated: 30 May 2019
Article by AFD China Intellectual Property

2019年4月23日,中华人民共和国国家主席习近平签发第二十九号主席令,公布了对《中华人民共和国商标法》、《中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》的修改。

此次修订系《商标法》自1982年8月23日通过后的第四次修正。在此之前已根据1993年2月22日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国商标法〉的决定》进行了第一次修正;根据2001年10月27日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国商标法〉的决定》进行了第二次修正;根据2013年8月30日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国商标法〉的决定》进行了第三次修正。此次系根据2019年4月23日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议《关于修改<中华人民共和国建筑法>等八部法律的决定》第四次修正。

《反不正当竞争法》则是于1993年9月2日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三次会议通过;2017年11月4日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议修订;此次系第二次修正。

《反不正当竞争法》的此次修订已于公布之日起开始施行,而《商标法》的本次修正将于2019年11月1日起施行。

为了方便您更好地了解法律修改的相关内容,我们在此将修改的法条予以整理分析,供您参考。

《商标法》修正内容

1. 第四条第一款

修改前 修改后
自然人、法人或者其他组织在生产经营活动中,对其商品或者服务需要取得商标专用权的,应当向商标局申请商标注册。 自然人、法人或者其他组织在生产经营活动中,对其商品或者服务需要取得商标专用权的,应当向商标局申请商标注册。 不以使用为目的的恶意商标注册申请,应当予以驳回。

【特殊说明】

明确了恶意注册商标的应予驳回,充分体现了通过立法保护商标使用价值,避免滥用注册申请权而损害他人权益。体现了法律对社会行为的规范作用。

2. 第十九条第三款

修改前 修改后
商标代理机构知道或者应当知道委托人申请注册的商标属于本法第十五条和第三十二条规定情形的,不得接受其委托。 商标代理机构知道或者应当知道委托人申请注册的商标属于本法 第四条、第十五条和第三十二条规定情形的,不得接受其委托。

【特殊说明】

基于第四条第一款的修改,明确了商标代理机构不得代办他人恶意商标注册申请业务。

3. 第三十三条

修改前 修改后
对初步审定公告的商标,自公告之日起三个月内,在先权利人、利害关系人认为违反本法第十三条第二款和第三款、第十五条、第十六条第一款、第三十条、第三十一条、第三十二条规定的,或者任何人认为违反本法第十条、第十一条、第十二条规定的,可以向商标局提出异议。公告期满无异议的,予以核准注册,发给商标注册证,并予公告。 对初步审定公告的商标,自公告之日起三个月内,在先权利人、利害关系人认为违反本法第十三条第二款和第三款、第十五条、第十六条第一款、第三十条、第三十一条、第三十二条规定的,或者任何人认为违反本法 第四条、第十条、第十一条、第十二条、 第十九条第四款规定的,可以向商标局提出异议。公告期满无异议的,予以核准注册,发给商标注册证,并予公告。

*第十九条第四款:商标代理机构除对其代理服务申请商标注册外,不得申请注册其他商标。

【特殊说明】

增加了商标异议事由,将恶意商标注册行为及第十九条第四款规定的商标代理机构申请注册(代理服务外的)其他商标的行为纳入异议理由。增强了对在先权利人、利害关系人的保护,强调了社会监督的作用。

4. 第四十四条第一款

修改前 修改后
已经注册的商标,违反本法第十条、第十一条、第十二条规定的,或者是以欺骗手段或者其他不正当手段取得注册的,由商标局宣告该注册商标无效;其他单位或者个人可以请求商标评审委员会宣告该注册商标无效。 已经注册的商标,违反本法 第四条、第十条、第十一条、第十二条、 第十九条第四款规定的,或者是以欺骗手段或者其他不正当手段取得注册的,由商标局宣告该注册商标无效;其他单位或者个人可以请求商标评审委员会宣告该注册商标无效。

【特殊说明】

将恶意商标注册行为及商标代理机构申请注册(代理服务外的)其他商标的行为列为商标无效理由。

5. 第六十三条第一款

修改前 修改后
侵犯商标专用权的赔偿数额,按照权利人因被侵权所受到的实际损失确定;实际损失难以确定的,可以按照侵权人因侵权所获得的利益确定;权利人的损失或者侵权人获得的利益难以确定的,参照该商标许可使用费的倍数合理确定。对恶意侵犯商标专用权,情节严重的,可以在按照上述方法确定数额的一倍以上三倍以下确定赔偿数额。赔偿数额应当包括权利人为制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支。 侵犯商标专用权的赔偿数额,按照权利人因被侵权所受到的实际损失确定;实际损失难以确定的,可以按照侵权人因侵权所获得的利益确定;权利人的损失或者侵权人获得的利益难以确定的,参照该商标许可使用费的倍数合理确定。对恶意侵犯商标专用权,情节严重的,可以在按照上述方法确定数额的 一倍以上五倍以下确定赔偿数额。赔偿数额应当包括权利人为制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支。

【特殊说明】

次修订加强了对侵犯商标专用权的赔偿力度,进一步增加违法成本,扼制侵权行为。

6. 新增第六十三条第四、五款

修改前 修改后
人民法院审理商标纠纷案件,应权利人请求,对属于假冒注册商标的商品,除特殊情况外,责令销毁;对主要用于制造假冒注册商标的商品的材料、工具,责令销毁,且不予补偿;或者在特殊情况下,责令禁止前述材料、工具进入商业渠道,且不予补偿。

假冒注册商标的商品不得在仅去除假冒注册商标后进入商业渠道。

【特殊说明】

新增本条系对假冒注册商标的商品如何处理的规定,对侵权商品和制造侵权商品的材料、工具予以销毁,必要时可责令禁止前述材料、工具进入商业渠道。避免假冒注册商标的商品(很可能是不合格商品)流入市场,侵犯消费者权益,破坏正常市场秩序。此举也是对行政处罚中没收违法所得、没收非法财物的补充。旨在更好地保护权利人的合法权益。

7. 第六十八条第一款第三项

修改前 修改后
(三)违反本法第十九条第三款、第四款规定的。

(三)违反本法第四条、第十九条第三款和第四款规定的。

8. 新增第六十八条第四款

修改前 修改后
对恶意申请商标注册的,根据情节给予警告、罚款等行政处罚;对恶意提起商标诉讼的,由人民法院依法给予处罚。

【特殊说明】

第六十八条是对商标代理机构违规行为予以行政、司法处罚的相关规定,上述2项修改系将代理恶意商标注册申请行为纳入处罚范围。

《反不正当竞争法》修正内容

1. 第九条

修改前 修改后
经营者不得实施下列侵犯商业秘密的行为:

(一)以盗窃、贿赂、欺诈、胁迫或者其他不正当手段获取权利人的商业秘密;

(二)披露、使用或者允许他人使用以前项手段获取的权利人的商业秘密;

(三)违反约定或者违反权利人有关保守商业秘密的要求,披露、使用或者允许他人使用其所掌握的商业秘密。

第三人明知或者应知商业秘密权利人的员工、前员工或者其他单位、个人实施前款所列违法行为,仍获取、披露、使用或者允许他人使用该商业秘密的,视为侵犯商业秘密。

本法所称的商业秘密,是指不为公众所知悉、具有商业价值并经权利人采取相应保密措施的技术信息和经营信息。
经营者不得实施下列侵犯商业秘密的行为:

(一)以盗窃、贿赂、欺诈、胁迫、 电子侵入或者其他不正当手段获取权利人的商业秘密;

(二)披露、使用或者允许他人使用以前项手段获取的权利人的商业秘密;

(三)违反保密义务或者违反权利人有关保守商业秘密的要求,披露、使用或者允许他人使用其所掌握的商业秘密;

(四)教唆、引诱、帮助他人违反保密义务或者违反权利人有关保守商业秘密的要求,获取、披露、使用或者允许他人使用权利人的商业秘密。

经营者以外的其他自然人、法人和非法人组织实施前款所列违法行为的,视为侵犯商业秘密。

第三人明知或者应知商业秘密权利人的员工、前员工或者其他单位、个人实施 本条第一款所列违法行为,仍获取、披露、使用或者允许他人使用该商业秘密的,视为侵犯商业秘密。

本法所称的商业秘密,是指不为公众所知悉、具有商业价值并经权利人采取相应保密措施的技术信息、经营信息等商业信息。

【特殊说明】

本条是对"侵犯商业秘密"的行为的界定,将"约定"明确为"保密义务"有利于识别判断何为约定,在合同中明确写明"保密义务"也有利于后续举证。

将"教唆、引诱、帮助他人违反保密义务或者违反权利人有关保守商业秘密的要求,获取、披露、使用或者允许他人使用权利人的商业秘密"的行为列为侵犯商业秘密的范畴。加大对上游人员的处罚力度,将"帮助人员"、"教唆人员"、"引诱人员"视为侵权人共同处罚,体现了司法的公平、公正,借用了刑法上"教唆犯都是主犯"的理念,从源头上扼制违法行为。

2. 第十七条

修改前 修改后
经营者违反本法规定,给他人造成损害的,应当依法承担民事责任。

经营者的合法权益受到不正当竞争行为损害的,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。

因不正当竞争行为受到损害的经营者的赔偿数额,按照其因被侵权所受到的实际损失确定;实际损失难以计算的,按照侵权人因侵权所获得的利益确定。赔偿数额还应当包括经营者为制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支。

经营者违反本法第六条、第九条规定,权利人因被侵权所受到的实际损失、侵权人因侵权所获得的利益难以确定的,由人民法院根据侵权行为的情节判决给予权利人 三百万元以下的赔偿。
经营者违反本法规定,给他人造成损害的,应当依法承担民事责任。

经营者的合法权益受到不正当竞争行为损害的,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。

因不正当竞争行为受到损害的经营者的赔偿数额,按照其因被侵权所受到的实际损失确定;实际损失难以计算的,按照侵权人因侵权所获得的利益确定。 经营者恶意实施侵犯商业秘密行为,情节严重的,可以在按照上述方法确定数额的一倍以上五倍以下确定赔偿数额。赔偿数额还应当包括经营者为制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支。

经营者违反本法第六条、第九条规定,权利人因被侵权所受到的实际损失、侵权人因侵权所获得的利益难以确定的,由人民法院根据侵权行为的情节判决给予权利人 五百万元以下的赔偿。

3. 第二十一条

修改前 修改后
经营者违反本法第九条规定侵犯商业秘密的,由监督检查部门责令停止违法行为,处 十万元以上五十万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,处五 十万元以上三百万元以下的罚款。 经营者以及其他自然人、法人和非法人组织违反本法第九条规定侵犯商业秘密的,由监督检查部门责令停止违法行为, 没收违法所得,处 十万元以上一百万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,处 五十万元以上五百万元以下的罚款。

【特殊说明】

上述两项修改主要是根据社会发展的现状,增加侵权违法成本,扩大处罚范围,加大对违法行为的处罚力度,扼制不正当竞争行为的蔓延。

4. 新增第三十二条

修改前 修改后
在侵犯商业秘密的民事审判程序中,商业秘密权利人提供初步证据,证明其已经对所主张的商业秘密采取保密措施,且合理表明商业秘密被侵犯,涉嫌侵权人应当证明权利人所主张的商业秘密不属于本法规定的商业秘密。

商业秘密权利人提供初步证据合理表明商业秘密被侵犯,且提供以下证据之一的,涉嫌侵权人应当证明其不存在侵犯商业秘密的行为:

(一)有证据表明涉嫌侵权人有渠道或者机会获取商业秘密,且其使用的信息与该商业秘密实质上相同;

(二)有证据表明商业秘密已经被涉嫌侵权人披露、使用或者有被披露、使用的风险;

(三)有其他证据表明商业秘密被涉嫌侵权人侵犯。

【特殊说明】

新增本条进一步明确了商业秘密权利人的举证责任,即提供初步证据即可。通过举证责任向涉嫌侵权人的倾斜,更好地保护权利人的权益。避免因为举证难而丧失了保护权利的先机,反而有违公序良俗。

法律法规是一种社会规范,旨在调整社会关系,而任何社会规范都为物质基础所决定。随着社会经济的不断发展,社会矛盾不断发生变化,人们对权利保护的需要也不断增加,中国特色社会主义法治体系建设也需要不断调整、不断完善。此次《商标法》、《反不正当竞争法》的修改,充分体现了法律对社会经济秩序中新情况、新问题的适应。力求通过"科学立法"充分保障国家利益、社会利益、人民利益,努力推进"良法善治"的进程,为实现"两个百年"目标在司法领域不断发力。

希望上述内容对您有所帮助。欢迎就相关事项,咨询我公司。

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however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

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