China: 论认罪认罚从宽制度中协商机制的构建 覧以律师参与协商的角度分析

Last Updated: 25 April 2019
Article by DeHeng Lawyer
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

摘要

认罪认罚从宽制度是协商性司法与我刑事政策相结合的产物。认罪认罚从宽制度的确立是一种刑事观念的变革,其核心是构建公诉人和被告人之间的协商机制,强调公诉人和被告人之间的对话与妥协,实现互利的正义。认罪认罚从宽制度中协商机制的缺失,致使制度缺乏内生动力。而认罪认罚协商机制的构建,实现公诉人和被告人的协商平等,离不开律师的有效参与、提供有效辩护以及相关权利救济制度的保障。

关键词:协商性司法、认罪认罚、平等

一、问题提出

自2014年刑事速裁程序试点开始,至2018年10月26日《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》的修改,认罪认罚从宽制度以法律形式正式确立,我国形成了普通程序、简易程序与速裁程序并存的三元化刑事审判程序模式。此次刑事改革,引入西方辩诉交易制度的设想,采纳协商性司法的价值理念,是我国刑事司法的历史性进步。然尽管法律对公诉人和被告人之间在量刑上进行协商有所规定,但对于如何保障被告人的协商权利、构建有效的协商机制,即对保障被告人在认罪认罚中的自愿性没有明确的权利救济,"无救济即无权利"。值班律师不同于辩护人,仅提供法律咨询、履行见证人的职责,无法达到帮助被告人与公诉人平等协商的目的。再者,因核心辩护权的缺失,证据制度的不完善,律师参与下的协商也难以达到理想效果。这都给认罪认罚从宽制度中的有效协商带来严峻考验。

笔者以为,协商机制的构建应是此次认罪认罚从宽制度改革的重要内涵,基于这一立场,笔者将从认罪认罚从宽制度协商机制中律师有效参与缺失的问题入手,探讨构建有律师参与的协商机制的正当性及律师参与下的协商机制构建途径。

二、有律师参与的协商机制构建的必要性

(一)值班律师制度下有效辩护缺失

2017年,最高人民法院、司法部联合印发《关于开展刑事案件律师辩护全覆盖试点工作的办法》,在北京等8个省市试点普通程序、简易速裁程序值班律师全覆盖。同年,"两高"会同公安部、国家安全部、司法部出台《关于开展法律援助值班律师工作的意见》(以下简称"《意见》"),对值班律师工作职责、监督管理做了规定。2018年的刑诉法修改,增加了值班律师的规定:"法律援助机构可以在人民法院、看守所等场所派驻值班律师。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人没有委托辩护人,法律援助机构没有指派值班律师为其提供辩护的,由值班律师为犯罪嫌疑人、被告人提供法律咨询、程序选择建议、申请变更强制措施、对案件处理提出意见等法律帮助",进一步扩大了值班律师覆盖面,从认罪认罚案件扩大至所有刑事案件,并明确了值班律师的职责地位。

从法律规定来看,值班律师不具备"辩护人"身份,只在被告人需要法律帮助时提供一定的咨询,且现行的法律对值班律师有无阅卷权均未做明确的规定,各地司法机关也是灵活处理。在无法阅卷的情况下,值班律师对被告人的犯罪事实并不清楚,只能依据被告人的口述进行判断,而很多时候被告人和值班律师都是第一次见面,被告人对值班律师也不完全信任,其所作的表述会带有强烈的主观色彩,这些都会严重影响值班律师对案情的判断,致使值班律师无法提供有效的法律帮助。再者,对于值班律师如何确定,未出台相应的法律进行规定,实践中也不乏擅长做民事的律师或是经验不足的律师助理来值班,提供法律咨询的情况。因法律规定被告人签署认罪认罚具结书应当在律师的见证下,我国现阶段的值班律师制度很大程度上的扮演的就是见证控、被双方签署认罪认罚具结书的见证人的角色。在这样的情况下,值班律师制度的设立更多的是流于形式,实质参与度不够,发挥作用有限,不具有针对性和实效性。

(二)辩护律师的有效参与不足

律师参与认罪认罚协商只是实现公诉人和被告人平等协商的形式保证,律师的有效参与,提供有效辩护,才能从实质上保证认罪认罚协商平等性。有效辩护源于美国的司法实践,根据《布莱克法律词典》的解释,律师的有效帮助是指在刑事案件中认真的、有意义的有效帮助,包括律师要就所有权利对被告人提出建议,律师要根据流行的职业标准合理履行所要求的任务。 1然我国的认罪认罚从宽制度下,律师的权利保障不足,与公诉人地位不平等,致使有效参与明显不足。

1.调查取证困难,执业保障不足,辩护律师缺少协商的筹码。

英美法系中,律师有独立完整的调查取证权,还有强制证人出庭制度和证据开示制度等弥补律师取证能力不足的缺陷,大陆法系纠问式诉讼中,辩护律师可以申请法官、检察官调查取证,同时证据保全制度和阅卷制度同样可以改善律师取证能力的不足。 2而纵观我国现行的刑事诉讼法,大部分律师权利条款都没有规定救济措施,如律师的会见通信权、阅卷权、调查取证权等,这些法律条文只规定了权利的内涵,却缺少权利遭受侵害时的救济措施。其中比较重要的,如言论豁免权,即针对律师的伪证罪,如果通过一些诱导性的提问使得证人改变证言,则可能面临伪证罪的后果,且律师的调查取证权受到多方限制,要征得证人的同意,如果是控方的证人,还需要征得控方的同意。在这种情况下,律师参与和公诉方谈协商,无异于是中小微企业和国有企业谈合作,只能是受压迫的协商。

2.控辩双方缺少平台,律师参与协商的难度大。

从法治社会的角度来看,律师、检察官、法官等是从不同角度为维护法律的正确实施和社会公平正义而奋斗。然一方面受到行政官僚文化的熏陶,律师是为委托人提供法律服务的"在野法曹",检察官、法官属于行使行政权力的"当政法曹",二者身份悬殊难以平等协商。

3另一方面,检察官、法官有业绩考核的压力,需要的是办案量,自然希望诉讼程序越快越好,被告人尽快认罪,而律师从被告人的角度出发,寻找检察官、法官的漏洞是辩护的有效方法,两者之间就存在冲突和对抗,控辩关系的紧张也为认罪认罚中的平等协商增加了难度。

3.量刑规范不精细,律师参与积极性低。

规范化量刑文本是在较宽泛的法定刑区间就量刑问题发成一直的重要指引和"通用语言"。 4《关于常见犯罪的量刑指导意见》和《人民法院量刑指导意见》中主要是对自首、退赃、坦白、从犯、自首等的量刑情节的规定,对认罪认罚在从宽处罚的范围和幅度上缺乏具体可操作性的标准,不同罪名量刑协商的空间究竟有多大,控辩双方心理都没谱,公诉方在实践中一般也比较保守,认罪认罚的量刑建议大约是在10%左右的幅度,空间太小,律师的协商积极性不高。

(三)缺少协商救济保障,被告人参与协商的积极性不高

1.协商成果面临诸多不确定的因素影响。

我国的刑事司法追求的是实质真实,强调罪刑法定,罪责刑相适应的原则,虽然引入认罪认罚从宽制度,但对法官依然要求对案件要进行全面的实质性的审查,故而即使在检察起诉阶段,控、被双方达成了一致意见,在审判阶段,仍然可能面临因法官对检察机关的量刑建议不予采纳的情况,则控、被双方的协商成为了无用功,被告人在为了达到协商结果过程中而对一些权利做出放弃亦将难以挽回。

2.对被告人是否处于自愿签署认罪认罚具结书缺乏审查机制。

没有律师参与下,被告人与公诉机关的协商,是一种极不对等的协商,其结果也许不是出于被告人的真实意愿,在审判阶段,法官也只是通过询问的形式审查方式,审查被告人签署具结书的自愿性,被告人一旦反悔,其签署的认罪认罚告知书又将成为公诉机关指控被告人对犯罪事实认可的证据。此外,如被告人在一审判决后又再上诉,又将面临公诉机关以一审判决畸轻而提出的抗诉。有鉴于此,被告人一旦选择签署认罪认罚,其承担的风险过大,故而参与协商的积极性也不高。

三、律师参与协商机制构建的正当性

(一)认罪认罚从宽制度中引入协商机制的正当性

随着社会的进步,科技的发展,工业化国家中的犯罪率激增,无论是发展中国家还是发达国家,均存在"案多人少"的问题,刑事司法工作的压力急剧增大,传统的司法程序耗费巨大的人力、物力、财力,且社会矛盾冲突并不能得到有效的缓解,为减少社会对抗,修复社会关系,协商性司法应运而生。

协商性司法是一种新的程序主义,他以当事人意思自治为指导原则,强调通过理性对话来实现纠纷解决中公权力与私权的合作。"协商性司法的核心价值在于通过控、被双方的对话、协商,在合意的基础上谋求控辩审三方都乐于接受的司法结果。在维持基本法治底线的框架内,该司法体系尽可能让不同利益诉求的控辩双方在诉讼过程中拥有更多的发言权,相互之间减少不必要的对抗而增加更多的对话与合作机会,力争把多元化的价值目标吸纳到程序之中"。 5协商性司法不同于传统的裁判性司法的显著特征,是将传统的依靠法官根据事实和裁决作出判决的对抗性机制,转化为多主体参与的对话与协商机制,从而实现诉讼纠纷的快速有效的解决。协商性司法的价值核心在于强调对话与妥协,以纠纷主体之间的理性对话为基本要素,通过主体之间的相互沟通和协调,最终达成双方都能接受和满意的目标。各参与的主体在对话过程中,通过主张、反驳、质疑、论证等行为,反复论证主题及其合理性,并最终达成共识覧"合意"。协商性司法追求的是一种"互利的正义",而非现在的由法官裁判主导的"分配的正义"。

在认罪认罚制度从宽制度中采纳协商性司法的理念,引入协商机制,具有重要的意义。第一,契合改革的目标,大大简便诉讼程序,缩短庭审流程,简化裁判文书,有效的节约司法资源。协商的最大红利在于激发被告人参与的积极性,吸引更多的犯罪行为人选择认罪认罚,从而实现效率的叠加和制度的良性循环。第二,促进法治的进步,为律师更广泛和更实质性地参与刑事诉讼程序提供契机,被告人的主体地位得到一定的彰显,不同于职权主义诉讼模式下,被告人只能被动的接受国家给予的恩惠,在协商机制下,被告人有了主动选择的机会,更像是诉讼程序中的主体,也是人权保障方面的巨大进步。第三,更有利于实现刑罚的目的。从恢复性司法到认罪认罚从宽制度,刑罚越来越注重刑罚的预防作用,给予犯罪行为人刑罚,不仅仅是为了惩治其错误行为,更多的是希望其能改过自新,重新回归社会,也对一般的社会群众起到教化的作用。协商机制下,缓和了社会矛盾,更有利于社会和谐。

(二)协商机制的构建要有律师参与的正当性

协商性司法,其核心就是协商。协商的基本就是协商双方的平等,很显然,从知识水平、证据掌握等方面,被告人均处于劣势地位,地位不平等,又何来协商?所以,律师参与具有必要性,是必需品。

1.律师参与协商在域外法律中得到充分实践。

"如果被指控犯罪的穷人没有律师的帮助而直面其指控者,那么,公证审判这一高贵理想就无从实现"。 6为防止检察官滥用权力,诱导被告人非处于自愿的认罪,许多国家均规定了强制辩护制度,力图保证律师的有效参与。"一个有经验的律师不可能被空洞的允诺欺骗,或受到不能被证明的指控威胁", 7美国的辩诉交易中,只能由辩护人与控方进行对话,如果被告人在没有辩护律师的情况下进行有罪答辩,法院必须审查案件,确保证据能够证明犯罪事实。在法国和意大利,规定被告人选择认罪答辩时律师必须在场。

2.律师参与协商对被告人的权益保护具有重要意义。

其一,律师参与可以给予被告人心理上的安慰。触犯刑法所要面临的严重后果给被告人带来巨大的精神压力,对所犯罪行的严重程度,构成什么罪名等茫然无知,羁押中无法见到亲人的孤立感,这些心理上的压力需要律师去为其排解,帮助被告人在后续的程序中以较好的精神状态作出理性的答辩选择。其二,律师参与可以保障被告人在协商中的自愿性。认罪认罚从宽制度要求被告人自愿悔罪且是明智的,即被告人自愿作出认罪的决定,律师通过阅卷、调查取证等方式,获取证据,且律师具有专业的法律知识,能有效的帮助被告人在与公诉人的协商中居于较为平等的地位,这样双方的协商成果也更为可信,被告人上诉的几率也小。

四、律师参与下的协商机制构建的路径

(一)值班律师的辩护人化

凡是在犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的选择面临法律风险、处于危险法律境地的场合,辩护律师都有参与辩护的必要性。律师辩护的领域应当涵盖所有容易产生冤假错案、可能造成犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,无法有效行驶辩护权的领域 8

我国目前的值班律师制度不同于辩护人,主要提供法律咨询和充当见证人,其所能发挥的作用是有限的,不同于传统意义上的辩护人。鉴于协商机制下,律师参与的必要性,可以考虑将值班律师辩护人化的可能。认罪认罚制度下,被告人放弃部分程序权利获取量刑上的从宽,为保障被告人能真正获得实体上的从宽,结合域外法律的经验,应考虑强制适用认罪认罚制度的案件辩护律师全覆盖。在被告人明确表示出认罪认罚意愿时,公诉机关应当告知其委托辩护律师或是为其指定法律援助律师。由律师参与认罪认罚过程,保障律师的阅卷权、会见权、调查权的权利,确保被告人的知悉权得到充分的保障,让被告人通过律师,对自己的所犯罪行,包括罪名、罪数、社会危害性等情况都有充分的了解,减少公诉机关利用信息、地位不对称的优势来诱导被告人接受某种不公平的方案。完善相关法律规定,以法律形式确认认罪认罚从宽制度中辩护律师全覆盖制度。

(二)增强律师参与的有效性

1.给予律师有限的独立辩护权。

《刑事诉讼法》35条规定:"辩护人的责任是根据事实和法律,提出犯罪嫌疑人、被告人无罪、罪轻或者减轻、免除其刑事责任的材料和意见,维护犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利和其他合法权益。"《律师法》第3条:"律师执业必须遵守宪法和法律,恪守律师职业道德和执业纪律。律师执业必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。"故刑辩律师要坚持"以事实为根据,以法律为准绳",刑辩律师具有一定的独立辩护的地位。《律师办理刑事案件规范》第5条则对律师有限辩护权地位进一步明确,"律师担任辩护人或为犯罪嫌疑人提供法律帮助,依法独立进行诉讼活动,不受委托人的意志限制。"在认罪认罚制度中,被告人可能出于对公诉机关的心理恐惧,可能是对自己的辩护律师的不信任,又或是公诉机关的诱导等原因,被告人按照公诉机关的要求接受了认罪认罚,而律师对被告人被指控的罪名或者罪数等存在意见,表示不愿意接受,在此情况下,应当适当的给予律师有限的独立辩护权,律师可以将自己对被告人被指控的犯罪事实的看法,对应否签署认罪认罚的意见提交至公诉机关,由公诉机关随卷送至审判机关。既体现了律师职业化追求,也利于法官在对案卷审查时有所侧重,减少冤假错案的可能性。

2.完善律师权利的保障机制。

建议引入协商听证制度,在认罪认罚协商机制中,公诉机关应充分听取辩护律师的意见,当辩护律师要求公诉机关举行认罪认罚从宽协商听证时,公诉机关应按时举行,且主持听证会的检察官不应是本案的承办检察官。协商听证的过程应当予以记录,并随卷递交审判机关。完善证据制度和辩护权,扩大律师调查取证的权利,对律师在行使辩护权给予更多的自由,如言论豁免、作证豁免等,保证律师在辩护过程中不会随意被国家机关干涉甚至危及自身的人身自由等。

(三)健全协商救济机制

协商的过程就是一个对话和妥协的过程。在协商过程中,为取得更大的利益而陈述的一些事实或者是作出的某些意思表示,如无其他证据相互佐证,不应当认定为被告人的自认。既然赋予被告人协商的权利,就应当给予其反悔的权利。被告人在一审第一次庭审之前的任何时期都应当具有选择适用何种程序的权利,当被告人选择恢复普通程序时,在认罪认罚从宽程序中签名认可的认罪认罚证据应重新调查,此前为协商而签署或者作出的任何意思表示均不应直接被公诉机关用来作为对被告人不利的证据使用,除非有其他完整的证据链加以佐证。此外,适用认罪认罚制度不影响被告人其他权利的享有,如上诉权。公诉机关不应采取抗诉的方式限制被告人的上诉权,以量刑畸轻为由进行抗诉,实则是对被告人行使上诉权的一种限制。审判机关作为中立机关不应参与认罪认罚协商,对被告人签署的认罪认罚具结书应进行实质审查,尤其是被告人或者辩护人提出异议时。只有完善被告人在协商机制下的救济权利,才能充分保障被告人在协商中的平等性,构建有效的协商机制。

五、结 语

认罪认罚从宽制度是我国刑事司法改革的重要举措,其真正的意义在于将协商性司法的精神以法律的形式明确下来,认罪认罚从宽制度不应仅仅看成是刑事审判程序的一种改革,更多的应看成是我国刑事司法的一种进步,是刑事司法从完全对抗的模式到开始采取对话模式的一种历史性转变,是我国刑事司法稳健运行的迫切需要。作为一种新制度,最初阶段的理性建构十分重要,本文笔者从律师参与构建协商机制的角度,对认罪认罚从宽制度在实践中存在的问题提出了一些想法和建议,以期认罪认罚从宽制度在我国能不断得到完善,最终形成具有中国特色且经得起实践检验的刑事制度。

裏 文中备注

1 Black's Law Dictionary:Ninth Edition [M].West,2009

2 余为青,侦查阶段辩护律师调查取证权的比较法考察[J],中国刑事法杂志.2009.(3)

3 胡铭、宋善铭《试论认罪认罚从宽制度中的律师有效参与》,《江苏行政学院院报》2018年第1期

4 王飞,《论认罪认罚协商机制的构建-对认罪认罚从宽制度试点中的问题的检讨与反思》,《政治与法律》2018年第9期

5 马明亮《正义的妥协协商司法在中国的兴起》,《中外法学》2004年第1期,第1页

6 [美]彼得キ德恩里科.法的门前[M].邓子滨译,北京大学出版社,2012

7 [美]爱伦キ豪切斯,泰勒キ斯黛丽,南希キ弗兰克,美国刑事法院诉讼程序[M].陈卫东,徐美君译,中国人民大学出版社,2001

8 陈瑞华,《认罪认罚从宽制度的若干争议问题》,《中国法学》第35页,2017年第1期

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