China: 中国大陆职场性骚扰的法律分析及 企业 应对

Last Updated: 15 December 2017
Article by Allbright Law Office

刘炯汤旻利钟旭

职场性骚扰对于员工及企业来说不再陌生,如何有效防治职场性骚扰已经成为企业不可小觑的问题。本文将结合法律及相关司法判例,讨论判断职场性骚扰的法律标准,并结合笔者处理相关案件的经验,从企业的角度出发,提出企业针对职场性骚扰的应对措施。

一、 中国法下对职场性骚扰行为的法律定义

虽然性骚扰对象两性皆可,不过通常情况下,女性更容易成为被骚扰对象,本文也以此为讨论基础。目前为止,中国大陆现行法律关于"性骚扰"的规定主要分布在《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》与各地实施办法以及《中华人民共和国刑法》中。其中,《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》第40条规定:"禁止对妇女实施性骚扰";《上海市实施<中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法>办法》第32条规定:"禁止以语言、文字、图像、电子信息、肢体行为等形式对妇女实施性骚扰";《中华人民共和国刑法》第237条将强制猥亵、侮辱罪定性为"以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法强制猥亵他人或者侮辱妇女"。

然而,上述法律并未明确性骚扰行为的构成要件。在广东邦达实业有限公司与林顺沅劳动合同纠纷二审民事判决书(【2015】中中法民六终字第235号)中,主审法官指出"劳动场所性骚扰行为"一般包含三方面:"一是此行为带性色彩;二是此行为对承受方而言是不受欢迎的,是有损于其人格和尊严的;三是这种行为可导致承受人在工作场所中产生一种胁迫、敌视、羞辱性的工作环境"。

二、 企业基于职场性骚扰可能承担的责任

鉴于现行法律并未明确规定职场性骚扰的构成要件以及企业针对职场性骚扰行为应承担的法律责任,企业关于职场性骚扰的防范及界定属于"灰色地带",因此,企业在应对职场性骚扰时应更加谨慎。整体而言,企业基于职场性骚扰可能承担对被指控为实施性骚扰者(下简称"骚扰者")与声称被性骚扰者(下简称"被骚扰者")两方面的法律责任。

() 企业可能对骚扰者承担的责任

企业在对职场性骚扰进行调查时,可能涉及因侵犯骚扰者名誉权、隐私权而对其承担侵权责任;此外,若企业解除与骚扰者劳动合同的,可能涉及因不当解除劳动合同而对其承担劳动法下的法律责任。

名誉权:

企业在对性骚扰案件进行调查时,很可能涉及相关信息在企业内部的流传,这涉及公民的名誉权。《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》第2条规定:"侵害民事权益,应当依照本法承担侵权责任。本法所称的民事权益,包括......名誉权、隐私权";《中华人民共和国民法通则》第101条规定:"公民、法人享有名誉权,公民的人格尊严受法律保护,禁止用侮辱、诽谤等方式损害公民、法人的名誉"。企业在对职场性骚扰进行调查时,可能因涉及侵犯骚扰者的名誉权,而对其承担相应的侵权责任。

隐私权:

在调查过程中,企业很可能需要查看涉案者的个人通讯记录、个人物品等信息,由此涉及公民隐私权。虽然,《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》(下简称"劳动合同法")第8条规定:"用人单位有权了解劳动者与劳动合同直接相关的基本情况",然而《中华人民共和国民法总则》(自2017年10月1日起实施)第111条规定:"自然人的个人信息受法律保护。任何组织和个人需要获取他人个人信息的,应当依法取得并确保信息安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或者公开他人个人信息"。可见,用人单位在了解劳动者与劳动合同有关的基本情况时,如超越必要限度,则仍有可能侵犯劳动者的隐私权。

然而,现行法律关于用人单位知情权及企业管理权与员工个人隐私权的界限并未作出明确规定。针对企业对员工物品进行搜查的情形,根据搜查对象的不同及搜查行为的合理性程度,企业对该员工可能承担侵权责任的风险也不同。整体而言,企业对员工办公物品进行搜查的,企业承担侵权责任的风险较搜查员工私人物品较低:

若企业出于内部管理的必要、基于合理怀疑,针对员工办公物品进行搜查的,法院持相对支持态度 1,企业因此对员工承担侵权责任的风险相对较小。

若企业出于内部管理的必要,且基于合理怀疑,针对员工私人物品进行搜查的,尽管法院对此持也相对支持态度 2,但企业因此对员工承担侵权责任的风险仍较其搜查办公物品时更大。

若企业非基于合理怀疑而对员工私人物品实施例行检查或突击检查的,法院持相对否定态度 3,企业因此对员工承担侵权责任的风险相对以上两种情形更大。

涉及职场性骚扰案件后,企业能否据此解除劳动合同:

《劳动合同法》第39条明确规定了企业可以解除员工劳动合同的情形,针对涉嫌性骚扰员工,最常见的是根据该条第2款,以该员工"严重违反用人单位规章制度"为由,解除与其的劳动合同且无需向其支付经济补偿金。然而,使用该种解除方式的前提是企业在内部规章制度中(比如《员工手册》)明确规定性骚扰属于严重违反企业规章制度、企业有权以此解除劳动合同,并且在员工入职之初已经明确告知该制度。若企业规章制度中无明确规定、或未告知员工有此规定,或者企业对员工是否构成性骚扰认定错误,而基于以上条文解除其劳动合同的,该员工可能要求企业继续履行原劳动合同或者要求企业支付经济补偿金。

() 企业可能对被骚扰者承担的责任

现行立法尚未明确规定企业针对职场性骚扰是否需要向被骚扰者承担责任,其中可能涉及企业承担相关责任的法律规定如下:

妇女权益保障:

虽然全国各地《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》实施办法关于用人单位是否需对被性骚扰员工承担赔偿责任的规定不尽相同,但基本都确定了用人单位应该采取必要措施制止工作场所性骚扰。比如:《四川省<中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法>实施办法》(以下简称"实施办法")第33条第2款规定:"用人单位和雇主应当采取措施制止工作场所的性骚扰";该《实施办法》第47条第2款进一步规定:"在工作场所发生对妇女实施的性骚扰,造成妇女身体、精神、民誉损害,单位或者雇主有过错的,应当依法承担相应的民事赔偿责任"。

人身伤害(精神损害):

此外,《侵权责任法》第34条规定:"用人单位的工作人员因执行工作任务造成他人损害的,由用人单位承担侵权责任"。最高人民法院《人身损害赔偿司法解释》第9条规定雇员在从事雇佣活动中致人损害的,雇主应当承担赔偿责任。且该两部法规对于损害的界定都包括精神损害(《侵权责任法》第22条,《人身损害赔偿司法解释》第1条)。

基于以上规定,针对职场性骚扰,企业可能需要对被骚扰者承担民事赔偿责任。

三、 企业因职场性骚扰而承担责任的风险等级划分

职场性骚扰根据实施主体及实施场景不同,主要可分为六类:

1、企业内部人员在与本职工作相关的活动中对本企业内部人员实施的性骚扰。

2、企业内部人员在与本职工作相关的活动中对外部人员实施的性骚扰。

3、企业内部人员在与本职工作无关的情况下对企业内部人员实施的性骚扰。

4、企业与外部合作伙伴在进行企业间商业往来时,由外部合作伙伴的相关人员对企业员工实施的性骚扰。

5、企业内部人员在与本职工作无关的情况下对外部人员实施的性骚扰。

6、企业外部合作伙伴的相关人员,在非企业间商业来往过程中对企业员工实施性骚扰。

针对上述六种情况,假设被骚扰者为女性,则企业就性骚扰所需承担责任的风险由高到低为: 123 456

企业在第1种情况下可能承担的责任:

- 向被骚扰者:《侵权责任法》第34条、《人身损害赔偿司法解释》第9条,以及我国及各地有关妇女权益保障法方面的责任。

- 向骚扰者:因损害其名誉权及隐私权,以及因不当解除劳动合同向骚扰者承担的责任。

企业在第2种情况下可能承担的责任:

- 向被骚扰者:由于企业不是被骚扰者的用人单位或雇主,较之第1 种情况下的多重责任,此时企业无须承担在妇女权益保障法方面中作为被骚扰者用人单位或雇主的责任。

- 向骚扰者:同1。

企业在第3种情况下可能承担的责任:

- 向被骚扰者:由于骚扰行为并非在工作行为中发生,因而雇主无需对被骚扰者承担侵权责任法方面的雇主责任,但是仍旧可能承担来自于妇女权益保障法方面的雇主责任。

- 向骚扰者:同1。

企业在第4种情况下可能承担的责任:

- 向被骚扰者:由于行为实施者并非本企业员工,企业对被骚扰者仅承担妇女权益保障法方面的责任,且较之于第3 种情况,该种情况下的一些外部、间接因素可能较多,故而企业成功抗辩的机会也更大。

- 向骚扰者:由于企业不是骚扰者的雇主,因而一般不会涉及对骚扰者的调查或解聘的事宜,因此不会产生这方面的责任。不过要注意如果需要与合作伙伴沟通有关性骚扰的事项时,注意措辞,以免涉及侵犯名誉权问题。

5种情况虽然从理论上来说企业无需对被骚扰者承担来自于侵权责任法或妇女权益保障法方面的责任,但是被骚扰者在寻求法律保护的过程中出于为自身争取最大利益可能性的考虑,可能将企业列为共同被告,对于企业来说即使最终无须承担责任,也可能被卷入纠纷中。因此,对于企业来说要注意基于性骚扰行为在"非工作中"发生而积极抗辩。

6种情况较之前几种,是骚扰者与被骚扰者之间的纯个人间纠纷,企业被牵涉进去的可能性也最低。

四、 企业针对职场性骚扰的应对措施

企业在制定其规章制度、进行日常运营时,应从事前预防和事后处理两个角度建立完善的性骚扰预防机制。

() 完善企业关于职场性骚扰的事前预防制度

企业可以从以下几个方面入手,完善职场性骚扰的事前预防制度:

第一,在企业的规章制度中明确规定职场性骚扰相关事项,主要包括以下几个方面:

  1. 明确什么是职场性骚扰并明令禁止职场性骚扰行为;
  2. 明确企业针对性骚扰投诉的调查权限。如规定员工办公物品(如办公电脑、储物柜、员工企业邮箱等)的所有权属于企业,且企业基于合理怀疑,有权对涉嫌性骚扰员工的上述办公物品进行搜查等。
  3. 明确企业针对实施性骚扰员工的制裁方式,如规定员工实施性骚扰的,属于严重违反企业规章制度的行为,企业有权与其解除劳动合同,并无需支付经济补偿金等 4

要注意的是,在制定规章制度时并非只由企业单方面自行决定。根据《劳动合同法》第4条的规定,用人单位在制定有关劳动纪律等直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度时,应当经职工代表大会或者全体职工讨论,提出方案和意见,与工会或者职工代表平等协商确定。且用人单位应当将直接涉及劳动者切身利益的规章制度和重大事项决定公示,或者告知劳动者。

因此,企业在制定规章制度时要注意实质内容与形式流程方面的合法性。在起草相关规章制度时也建议由企业内部法务部门与外部律师合作,确保条款的严谨性、可行性、合法性,避免发生针对条款本身理解上的纠纷。

当满足上述法律规定的流程后,企业应将与性骚扰有关的企业内部规章制度明确书面化并公示(比如编入《员工手册》)中),并事先提醒所有员工注意(宜用邮件通知,方便纠纷发生时进行有效举证)。

第二,针对性骚扰,建立完善的投诉及反馈机制,充分保护被骚扰员工的隐私,以保证被骚扰员工的诉求得以及时提出。

第三,结合企业自身情况,通过工会或者设立专门的性骚扰防治小组,及时、有效地处理性骚扰投诉或举报。

第四,定期对员工进行性骚扰防治的培训,使企业员工及时了解什么行为构成职场

性骚扰、员工遭遇职场性骚扰时的投诉机制及维权方式等。

() 完善企业针对职场性骚扰的事后处理机制

企业可以从以下几方面入手,完善针对职场性骚扰的事后处理机制:

第一,在针对性骚扰调查过程中注意对骚扰者名誉权及隐私权的保护

隐私权:为避免侵犯骚扰者的隐私权,建议企业将针对性骚扰的调查保密进行;同时,调查过程中,在不妨碍调查的前提下尽量有骚扰者本人在场,并给予骚扰者必要的通知。

需要特别注意的是,企业内部的规章制度(比如《员工手册》)并非企业的"保护伞",即使企业在规章制度中明确"企业有权对涉嫌实施性骚扰的员工进行搜查",该规定仍有可能因涉嫌侵犯员工隐私权而无效。 5因此,企业在对涉嫌性骚扰员工展开调查,尤其是需要对其私人物品进行搜查的,应充分考虑企业调查权与员工个人隐私权的界限,保证其搜查行为的合理性。

名誉权:为避免侵犯骚扰者的名誉权,建议企业将针对性骚扰的调查保密进行;此外,即使调查后有证据直接认定该行为构成性骚扰,在案件性质没有达到《刑法》规定的量刑程度、不需要向第三方提供有关信息时,可以考虑在与骚扰者解除劳动合同的时候也保密进行。

第二,在调查过程及后续处理过程中注意对被骚扰者的保护

被骚扰者在职场性骚扰中往往处于受害者的地位,建议企业在针对职场性骚扰调查及后续处理中均最大限度地保密进行,以免因性骚扰事实的曝光给被骚扰者造成二次伤害。此外,企业在必要时可以自费给被骚扰者提供心理辅导,以降低被骚扰者受到的伤害、并尽可能安抚被骚扰者、降低被骚扰者对企业的不满情绪。

第三,第三方中立机构的介入

为保持中立性,同时增加被骚扰者的对调查者的信任程度,企业可以聘用第三方中立机构(比如外部律师)介入性骚扰调查,由该第三方机构直接与被骚扰者沟通。企业可以协助被骚扰者与该第三方机构签订保密协议,确定该第三方机构从被骚扰者处获得的信息,未经被骚扰者同意,不得向包括企业在内的第三人透露。

当然,当案件性质较为严重时,则有必要及时请有搜查权的机关或部门介入(比如帮助被骚扰者报警等)。

当涉及可能解除与骚扰者的劳动合同时,聘用第三方中立机构(比如外部律师)负责与骚扰者进行谈判,也是一种可以避嫌、更高效、便于规避风险的方式。

Footnotes

1 参见:冯漪与四川中达凌志汽车有限公司劳动争议([2013]高新民初字第3673号)。

2 参见:朱元春与重庆泰山电缆有限公司劳动争议二审民事判决书((2015)渝一中法民终字第04774号)。

3 参见:戎锡凤与无锡花园城广场大酒店有限公司君乐酒店劳动合同纠纷一审民事判决书((2014)崇民初字第0850号)。

4 参见:广东邦达实业有限公司与林顺沅劳动合同纠纷二审民事判决书(【2015】中中法民六终字第235号)。

5 参见:戎锡凤与无锡花园城广场大酒店有限公司君乐酒店劳动合同纠纷一审民事判决书((2014)崇民初字第0850号)。

Originally published by Lexology, August 15 2017.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions