China: Maintaining A Fexible Workforce In China - Is It Possible? (Chinese)

Last Updated: 29 June 2017
Article by Richard Bell

在中国灵活雇佣员工–可能吗? - 简要介绍中国法下的劳动合同安排

中国劳动法偏向劳动者是一件众所周知的事。现有劳动法的主旨不是维持灵活的劳动力市场,而是在于劳动者的保护。工会的监督、特定种类员工的职业保障以及用人单位解除员工的限制都是现有制度的特色内容。大量人士还注意到劳动仲裁庭也是偏向劳动者的,这使得不管是因为员工过错还是业务重组,用人单位都难以在不付补偿金的情况下解除员工。这为在华企业的高效运营制造了阻碍。

中国政府注意到这个问题已有一段时间,客观地说他们也已经采取了一些应对措施。多名全国人大代表曾通过提案建议修改现行劳动法规,增加用工方式,提高用工灵活性,以保护用人单位的合法权益。如人力资源和社会保障部(人社部)在2016年底的一份报告中提出:

"...劳动合同法实施中围绕立法宗旨、无固定期限劳动合同、经济补偿金等内容存在一些争议,下一步将就无固定期限劳动合同等内容进行全面评估,在调研评估的基础上提出修改劳动合同法的建议。"

人社部的报告发布之前,财政部部长楼继伟也在2015和2016年发表了一些广受关注的观点,认为现行劳动法规没有充分保护用人单位的利益,国家层面推崇长期劳动合同的政策对很多企业都不适合。楼部长表示,现行劳动法造成了劳动市场的僵化,工资上升的速度已经实际上超过了员工产出增长的速度。于是乎,这影响了中国的企业竞争力,削减了劳动者利益。楼部长进一步建议应该调整政府政策,提高劳动市场的灵活性,让《劳动合同法》在劳动者和用人单位之间实现平衡。

尽管有迹象表明中国政府正在严肃考虑改革劳动市场,《劳动合同法》和整体劳动制度的实质变动尚待时日。

在此期间,用人单位应如何巧用现有雇佣方式并受益其中呢?根据我们的经验,可以通过两种方式实现这一结果:

  1. 充分利用劳务派遣机构;以及
  2. 通过雇佣合同的设计避开无固定期限劳动合同的陷阱

本文逐个介绍这些方法,讨论它们的利弊。我们还将并介绍试用期在中国的效用。

劳务派遣

劳务派遣在2008年《劳动合同》法下被确认为一种合法的雇佣方式,并在2014年3月1日施行的《劳务派遣暂行规定》中得到了改进和完善。

在劳务派遣模式下,公司A和劳务派遣机构签订一份劳务派遣合同。劳务派遣机构与劳动者签订劳动合同,随后将这些劳动者"派遣"至公司A。公司A无需承担用人单位的法律责任(例如签订书面劳动合同、购买社会保险、支付解约金等)。公司A同时得以避免签订无固定期限劳动合同的风险(详见下文)。由于员工和劳务派遣机构通常签订的是短期合同,公司A能够在合同到期时将员工退回派遣机构。

但劳务派遣模式并非十全十美。首先,使用劳务派遣安排意味着用人单位必须向劳务派遣机构支付一笔费用。其次,劳务派遣用工受到若干法律法规限制,劳务派遣仅能适用于临时性、辅助性和替代性的岗位。第三,劳务派遣机构必须取得相应的资质。市场中许多劳务派遣机构并没有依法取得资质,使用这些机构提供劳务派遣服务的用人单位可能会面临调查和处分的风险。最后,劳务派遣用工并不必然能够避免用人单位的责任。如果员工的权益在派遣期间受到了损害,派遣机构和用人单位有承担连带责任的风险。

中国劳动合同的种类

《劳动合同法》认可四种劳动合同:

  1. 无固定期限劳动合同;
  2. 固定期限劳动合同;
  3. 以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同;以及
  4. 非全日制用工的劳动合同。

无固定期限劳动合同

无固定期限劳动合同没有确定的期间,在员工退休或被解除之前持续有效。

通常,私营用人单位使用无固定期限合同并不普遍,因为除非存在《劳动合同法实施条例》第19条规定的情况(例如劳动者严重违反用人单位的规章制度、劳动者患病或者非因工负伤不能从事工作、劳动者被追究刑事责任等),签订无固定期限合同的用人单位难以解除员工。

不仅如此,签订了无固定期限合同的员工在经济性裁员时也享有特定保护。这使得用人单位非常头痛,因为这些员工常常是他们想要裁减以提高生产效率的那些人。

因此,用人单位在无固定期限劳动合同下的灵活性比较有限。

固定期限劳动合同

有别于无固定期限劳动合同,固定期限劳动合同允许用人单位在合同到期时不再使用劳动者,是中国最普遍的用工形式。用人单位签订的固定期限不等,不过最常见的在1 – 3年之间。

需要注意的是,依据《劳动合同法》,固定期限劳动合同在下述情况下会成就签订无固定期限劳动合同情形:

  1. 员工已经服务满了两个固定期限;
  2. 员工已经连续服务了十年。

此外,如果用人单位未能在员工开始工作后一年内与该员工签订书面劳动合同,则视为用人单位与员工已经签订了无固定期限劳动合同。

假如通过劳务派遣机构用工不现实或不理想,固定期限劳动合同是意欲一定程度控制公司劳动状况的用人单位的最佳的备选方案。

以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同

以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同适用于如下类型的工作:

  1. 完成一项单件任务(例如研发某个特定软件或某项特定技术)
  2. 完成一个特定项目;
  3. 季节性的工作(例如棉花/茶叶收获);
  4. 其他需要聘用人员的短期、暂时性工作。

由于用人单位通常难以预计一项特定任务需要花费的准确时间,这类合同的期限是从员工开始从事特定任务时起至任务完成时止。

以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同是法律允许用人单位预设解除条件的唯一情形,任务完成的时间通常即是解除时间。使用这种合同能够允许用人单位避免与员工订立无固定期限劳动合同。但是,用人单位不能在使用这种合同时设置试用期。

非全日制用工的劳动合同

在员工同意的前提下,《劳动合同法》允许用人单位使用非全日制用工劳动合同。

非全日制用工劳动合同能够提供灵活性。不需要全日制员工的用人单位可以采用非全日制用工劳动合同,无需建立固定期限或无固定期限的劳动关系。

在非全日制用工劳动合同下:

  1. 员工报酬按小时计算,有别于固定和无固定期限劳动合同项下的定额报酬;
  2. 每天工作时间不能超过四小时,每周工作时间总计不能超过二十四小时;
  3. 员工可以与其他用人单位订立劳动合同,但后订立的劳动合同不能影响在先劳动合同的履行。

非全日制用工劳动合同下用人单位和员工双方都有相当的灵活性。但是,由于需要员工的同意,这种合同的实际应用比较有限。

试用期

试用期在《劳动合同法》下是合法的。劳动合同经常包含这种安排,允许用人单位考核员工在聘用初期的表现。试用期安排为用人单位保留了一些灵活性,如果员工在试用期的表现显示其不符合录用条件,用人单位可以停止聘用这名员工而无需签订无固定期限或固定期限劳动合同。

需要注意的是,法律也对试用期施加了一些限制。

首先,试用期不能过长。对于期限在三个月以上一年以下的劳动合同,试用期不能超过一个月。对于期限在一年以上三年以下的劳动合同,试用期不能超过两个月。对于固定期限不少于三年或无固定期限的劳动合同,试用期不能超过六个月。

其次,按照《劳动合同法》第三十九条和第四十条,用人单位只在有限的情形下能够解除试用期内的员工。通常用人单位会解除不符合录用条件(即不胜任)的试用期员工。以这一理由解除员工需要遵守严格的程序要求。用人单位必须证明其制定了具体的录用要求以及员工在被录用时被明确告知了这些录用要求。用人单位还必须保留该员工的工作考核情况,反映员工在哪些方面不符合录用要求。最后,用人单位需要在解除之前向工会说明理由。

第三,如果用人单位签订的是以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同、非全日制用工劳动合同或者期限在三个月以下的固定期限劳动合同,法律不允许用人单位设置试用期。

尽管与其他法域比起来中国法下的试用期给用人单位带来的灵活性相对较小,我们仍认为值得设置试用期,因为这至少给予了用人单位在聘用初期依法解除不胜任的劳动者的可行途径。

总结

中国法不允许用人单位任意雇佣和解除员工。与此相反,中国劳动法规和司法体制的宗旨是维护员工的权利,而非保护用人单位的经济利益。这造成了一个相对缺乏灵活性的劳动力市场,给用人单位的高效运作设置了障碍。尽管如此,通过有效利用劳务派遣机构、使用固定期限劳动合同替代无固定期限劳动合同、在适当的情形运用非全日制用工劳动合同和以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同,以及在劳动合同中设置试用期,用人单位可以在员工队伍管理中保持一定的灵活性。关键是,对于员工雇佣的问题必须具体问题具体分析。用人单位应该在结合员工队伍的组成以及对每一个、每一类员工的职能,从而选择最灵活、最高效的用工安排。

注释:

1 这一规定不适用于外国企业在华代表处。由于代表处不能直接雇佣人员,它们必须通过劳务派遣机构雇佣员工。这种情况下的劳务派遣安排无需限于暂时性、辅助性或替代性的岗位。

2017年6月《中国法律快讯》的完整链接和其他文章的链接如下:

  • 中国网络安全法更新 – 有关数据传送和安全审查的新规定
  • 呼应政府与社会资本合作模式在华升温,专门仲裁中心近日成立
  • 伊朗伊斯兰共和国就业安排
  • 保监会发文要求开展偿付能力数据真实性自查工作
  • 英国法下合同的成立– 中国公司需要注意的问题

Maintaining A Fexible Workforce In China - Is It Possible? (Chinese)

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