China: Change – Is It Always A Good Thing? (Chinese)

Last Updated: 2 February 2017
Article by Ik Wei Chong and Christian Liu

简介

2016年8月,《2015年保险法》(以下简称《保险法》)开始实施。新保险法代表了英国保险合同法100多年来最大的变更,作为对原有法规姗姗来迟的全面更新,备受保险行业的推崇。

但是,最近的立法变更已经引起了保险业界的一些担忧。2017年5月,《2016年公司法》(以下简称《公司法》)将在英国生效,并将对保险法进行两项重要修改,增加了如下两个新条款:

  • 《公司法》第28条对《2015年保险法》增加了一个新的章节(第13(A)节)。该节内容规定了每一保险合同中的隐含条款,即如果被保险人根据合同提出索赔,则保险人必须"在合理时间内"支付任何与索赔有关的应付款项。"合理"时间包括调查和评估索赔的时间。什么时间是合理的将取决于稍后进一步考虑的各种因素。
  • 《公司法》第29条允许保险人不履行上述合同的修改退出合同协议(虽然不是针对消费者保险)。但是,如果保险人故意或罔顾后果违反合同条款,则该退出保险合同的行为将不会生效。

如何在独立个案中判断是否属于"合理时间"?

第13(A)(3)条规定:

"什么是合理的将取决于所有相关情况",但下列因素是可能需要考虑的几个例子:

  1. 保险的类型;
  2. 索赔的规模和复杂性;
  3. 符合任何相关的法律或监管规则或指导;
  4. 保险人无法控制的因素;

第13(A)(4)条进一步规定,如果保险人表示有合理的理由对该项索赔提出争议(无论该争议是关于索赔金额还是法律责任),则保险人没有违反必须在合理时间内完成支付这一隐含条款,,而只是"当争议持续的时候没有完成索赔的支付"。但是,保险人在处理索赔时的行为可能是决定其是否违反该条款及何时违反的相关因素。

保险人是否必须支付惩罚性损害、利润损失或其他损害?

引入关于逾期支付索赔的损害这一规则的考虑是,非法逾期付款,特别是当被保险人属于中小型企业(英文简称SME)时,对其造成的损害甚至可能使公司陷入破产并进入清算程序。逾期支付索赔的损害将被评估为违约造成的损害,这意味着被保险人必须就逾期支付索赔提供证明:

  1. 逾期支付保险索赔已经造成实际经济损失;
  2. 损失的类型是保险人可以预见的,如果保险人逾期支付,合同各方都能考虑到可能发生的损失(Hadley v Baxendale(1854) 156 ER 145 一案正在做相关测试),并且;
  3. 被保险人已经采取合理步骤减轻损失;

如果保险人能够预见一家提出大笔海运货物索赔的中小型企业将依赖于保单的支付来持续其业务,那么保险人可能会因逾期付款而对其业务损失和利润损失负责。而对于一家规模较大的公司而言,如相关费用是因安排短期贷款或过渡性贷款而引起的财务费用,则依据个案的具体情形,损失赔偿可能最高限于外借资金的成本。

评价

《公司法》即将引入的修改尤为重要,主要是因为这些修改使保险人负有法律义务在一个特定时间段内对索赔作出响应,若在该时间段内未处理索赔则必须承担法律责任。

同时,保险人表示逾期付款的损害条款会对其业务操作带来相当大的不确定性,主要基于以下考虑:

  1. 可能导致额外的成本,例如额外招聘员工来处理索赔;
  2. 在起诉保险公司时,提出索赔的被保险人可能对逾期支付索赔造成的损害提出赔偿,以迫使保险人放弃抗辩。当索赔方因对方未支付保险保障利益而起诉保险公司并希望对保险公司施加压力,包括因利润损失而提出的大额索赔,将可能被视作一明智的策略。
  3. 保险公司自身可能面临对损失赔偿请求提出抗辩或付尽损失赔偿的风险,或者提高保费来抵御这一风险。

目前的伦敦市场上,一直在协调劳合社对《公司法》和《保险法》回应的劳埃德市场协会(LMA)仍在考虑出台新的规定,但他们表示打算发布保单示范条款来限制责任。

上述英国法案的修订无疑会影响中国保险公司发布的以英国法为适用法律或引入协会条款的保单。这还将引起保险公司对于处理灾难索赔(例如涉及2015年8月12日天津港火灾和爆炸的索赔)的考量。被保险人不仅可以向监管机关提出诉讼,而且在索赔没有尽快支付的情况下,以逾期支付索赔造成损害为由提出索赔。

目前,很难预测这些修改将产生的影响。我们有待几年后相关案件经过庭审实践产生一套完整的判例法来界定何为"合理的时间"以及针对特定案件采取何种合理的损失赔偿方案。保险行业因此需要拭目以待。

Change – Is It Always A Good Thing? (Chinese)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Emails

From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.