China: Patent Litigation In China

Last Updated: 15 December 2016
Article by Chuanhong Long and Guoxu Yang

1. Types of Intellectual Property Rights & Granting Procedure

1.1 Types of Intellectual Property Rights

The Chinese legal system provides patent protection for inventions.There are three types of patents under Patent Law, namely a patent for an invention, a patent for a utility model and a patent for a design. Inventions could be also be protectable as trade secrets under the Chinese legal system. Indeed, before the inventor or other relevant applicant files a patent application regarding an invention, the invention should be kept as a trade secret to meet the novelty requirement under Patent Law. Alternatively, some inventions may be suitable for keeping a trade secret rather than being protected as a patent because a trade secret can be protected indefinitely as long as it can be kept secret, whereas a patent has a limited term of protection. Patent rights and trade secrets are both based on statutory law in the Chinese legal system.

1.2 Grant Procedure

Patent for invention

After a patent application for an invention has been filed with the Intellectual Property Office, it is published promptly after 18 months counting from the filing date (or priority date, if any). The applicant may request substantive examination within three years of the filing date (or priority date, if any) so that the patent application for the invention may enter into a substantive examination phase. After the substantive examination, if it meets the novelty and inventiveness requirements and other requirements for formalities under Chinese Patent Law and its Implementing Regulations, a patent right will be granted and published in the official gazette. The patent application is required to be amended through one or more official actions. If the problem cannot be overcome by means of such amendments, the patent application may ultimately be rejected.

Patent for utility model and design

After a patent application for a utility model or design has been filed with the Intellectual Property Office, it only checks the formality requirements under Chinese Patent Law and there is no substantive examination thereof. The patent for a utility model or design may be granted and published in the official gazette if the formality requirements are met. Amendments should be notified to the Intellectual Property Office.

Trade secret

A trade secret arises automatically without the need for any grant procedure as long as it has specific economic value and is not known to the public. In addition, reasonable security measures must be taken to ensure that the trade secret remains confidential.

1.3 Timeline for Grant Procedure

The average granting procedure typically lasts two to three years for a patent for an invention, and six to 12 months for a patent for a utility model or design. The applicant does not need a representative, eg a (patent) attorney, before the Intellectual Property Office to initiate grant proceedings if the applicant is a Chinese individual or entity. The applicant does need a representative before the Intellectual Property Office to initiate grant proceedings if the applicant is a foreign individual or entity. The nationality or residency of inventors is irrelevant to this issue. The average costs to grant covering all official fees, attorney fees and possible translation fees is approximately CNY25,000 to CNY35,000 for patent for an invention, about CNY15,000 for patent for a utility model and about CNY7,500 for a design.

1.4 Term of Each Intellectual Property Right

For the patent for an invention, the protection term is 20 years from the filing date before the Intellectual Property Office, while that for a patent for a utility model and design is ten years. For a trade secret, the protection term is as long as it can be kept confidential.

1.5 Rights and Obligations of Owner of Intellectual Property Right

Typically, an IP right includes patents, trade marks, copyrights and trade secrets in China. The owner of an IP right is entitled to seek a preliminary/interim injunction, a permanent injunction and damages. The owner of an IP right other than a trade secret is obliged to pay annual fees or renewal fees. The owner of a trade secret is obliged to take reasonable measures to keep the trade secret confidential in order for qualify as a trade secret and be protected.

1.6 Further Protection After Lapse of Maximum Term

There is no further protection for technical IP rights after their maximum term has lapsed. However, if the technical IP also enjoys another form of IP protection at the same time, such as a design patent, it may also enjoy copyright protection, so the copyright protection may still continue even if the maximum term for the design patent has lapsed.

1.7 Third Party Rights to Participate in Grant Proceedings

Third parties have the right to participate during grant proceedings, eg the third parties may file third-party observations with the Intellectual Property Office during the examination procedure of a patent application. The examiner may consider the observation and accept the opinion and prior art references if they deem fit. However, since the procedure is an ex parte procedure, the examiner will not give any feedback regarding the observations. The third-party observation should be filed as early as possible so that the examiner has a chance to consider it before they decide to grant the patent.

1.8 Remedies Against Refusal to Grant Intellectual Property Right

If the Intellectual Property Office refuses to grant a patent right, the applicant may request a re-examination by the Patent Re-examination Board. If the rejection decision is upheld by the Patent Re-examination Board, the applicant may file a lawsuit with the Beijing Intellectual Property Court against the Patent Re-examination Board and the decision of the Beijing Intellectual Property Court may be further appealed to the Beijing High People's Court.

1.9 Consequences of Failure to Pay Annual Fees

Failure to pay the annual fees may result in the abandonment of the patent right and the patent will be terminated by the Intellectual Property Office if the problem is not remedied in a timely manner. The patentee has six months in which to resume the patent right by making payment of the annual fees. If the annual fees are paid within one month of the expiry of the term, no late fees are required. If the annual fees are paid later than this, late fees will be required and will increase on a monthly basis.

2. Initiating a Lawsuit

2.1 Actions Available Against Infringement

In China, at least two kind of actions are available to the owner of a technical IP right against infringement of that right, ie judicial action and administrative action.

2.2 Third Party Remedies to Remove Effect of Intellectual Property Right

To remove the effects of the technical IP right, eg a patent right, any party can request the Patent Re-examination Board to declare the patent right invalid for specific reasons with the necessary supporting evidence. No legal or commercial interest is required.

2.3 Courts with Jurisdiction

For patent matters, the first instance courts are of intermediate level and are specially designated by the Supreme Court. In Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, special Intellectual Property Courts were set up in 2014 and exclusively receive patent matters in those areas. The second court would be the higher court over these intermediate courts. There is no third-instance court, but if the parties disagree with the second court decision, they may file a retrial with the Supreme Court. For a patent infringement dispute, the courts where the defendant is located or where the infringement takes place have the jurisdiction to receive the case for the first instance. A patentee or an interested person may also sue the manufacturer of the infringing product at the court where the seller is located or where the selling/offer for sale takes place by adding the seller as a co-defendant.

2.4 Prerequisites to Filing a Lawsuit

There are no prerequisites to filing a lawsuit, such as issuing a formal demand letter, warning letters, engaging in mediation, etc in China.

2.5 Legal Representation

There is no need to be represented by a lawyer for the parties in an IP dispute before Chinese courts. However, if the party is a foreigner or foreign company and wishes to be represented by a lawyer, they must be represented by a Chinese lawyer, according to Chinese law.

2.6 Interim Injunctions

Interim injunctions are available in China. Generally, the following conditions should be met so that an interim injunction may be granted by the court:

  • high likelihood of infringement;
  • validity of patent right;
  • irreparable losses caused if interim injunctions are not granted;
  • whether the interim injunctions would be harmful to the public interests;
  • whether the applicant provides a bond. The bond will be used to compensate the losses for the suspect infringer due to the cessation of relative acts under the interim injunction, if the application for an interim injunction is found to be wrong, for example the patent is invalidated or no infringement is found.

2.7 Protection for Potential Opponents

The potential opponent can normally do nothing to stop the granting of an interim injunction. The potential opponent may request re-examination of the grant of interim injunction but cannot stop the execution of the interim injunction. However, in certain cases, at the discretion of the court, the court may invite the potential opponent to discuss the matter in order to investigate whether the conditions have been met in granting the interim injunction. Under such a circumstance, the potential opponent may have a chance to raise counter-arguments as to why an interim injunction should not be granted.

2.8 Special Limitation Provisions

A statutory limitation of action may apply in IP matters. The right holder will be required to enforce their patent right within two years from the time they knew or should have known of the infringement. Otherwise, they will not win the case because of the statutory limitation. However, if the infringement continues, the right holder is entitled to request that the infringer stop the infringement without the two-year limitation, but may only collect damages for two years before filing the lawsuit.

2.9 Mechanisms to Obtain Evidence and Information

It is a normal principle that it is the party who makes the claim who carries the burden of proof. In a patent infringement proceeding, the plaintiff has to prove the infringement. The only exception is that, if the patent concerned is a method patent for producing a new product, the burden of proof is transferred to the other party, ie the other party has the obligation to prove that they are actually using a method different from the patented method. Even under these circumstances, the plaintiff still bears the burden to prove that the product is new and that the alleged infringing product is the same as the product made by the patented method. For information processed by a third party, such as a government department or an authority, which is difficult to be obtained by the party, the party may request the court to obtain the information according to Civil Procedure Law. Recently, the burden of proof rule has been under review, and the defendant is also required to provide evidence if the plaintiff has tried their best to provide specific evidence. Otherwise, the defendant bears the unfavourable consequences. For example, according to the newly issued Supreme People's Court interpretation of patent infringement issues, where the actual loss of the patent holder due to infringement is difficult to determine, the People's Court should request that the patent holder provide evidence to prove the benefit obtained by the infringer as a result of the infringement according to the provision of Article 65(1) of Chinese Patent Law. Whilst the patent holder has provided initial evidence regarding the benefit obtained by the infringer, but the accounts and materials relating to the infringing acts are under the control of the infringers, the people's court may order the infringers to surrender the accounts and materials. Where the infringer refuses to surrender without cogent reason or delivers forged accounts and materials, the people's court may determine the benefit obtained by the infringer as a result of the infringement by reference to the patent holder's claim and the evidence as submitted.

2.10 Initial Pleading Standards

According to Article 119 of Civil Procedure Law, an action to be instituted must meet all of the following conditions:

  • the plaintiff is a citizen, legal person or any other organisation with a direct interest in the case.
  • there is a clear defendant.
  • there are specific claims, facts and reasons.
  • the case is within the scope of civil actions accepted by the people's court and under the jurisdiction of the people's court in which the action is instituted.

There are no special provisions for lawsuits in IP proceedings that differ from non-IP proceedings. It is generally possible to supplement pleadings with additional arguments before the expiry of the term of evidence submission. The limitation may not apply if the nature of the legal relationship claimed by the party or the effectiveness of a civil action is not identical to the conclusion of the people's court according to the facts of the case. In such a situation, the people's court should request the party to modify the pleadings.

2.11 Representative or Collective Action

The legal system in China permits representative or collective actions for general civil proceedings. According to Article 54 of the Civil Procedure Law, where the subject matter of an action for each party is of the same kind, and the parties on one side of an action are numerous, but the exact number of such parties is uncertain at the time when the action is instituted, the people's court may publish a notice to describe the case and claims and notify right-holders to register with the people's court within a certain period of time.

The right holders who have registered with the people's court may recommend a representative or representatives to participate in the litigation; if no representative is recommended, the people's court may appoint a representative or representatives in consultation with the right holders who have registered with the people's court.

The litigation conduct of those representatives will bind all the parties represented; however, to modify or relinquish any claims, admit any claims of the opposing party or reach a settlement, the representatives must obtain consent from the parties represented.

The judgment or ruling issued by the people's court will bind all right holders who have registered with the people's court. This judgment or ruling will also apply to actions instituted during the time limitation by rights holders who have not registered with the people's court. However, since the nature of IP rights proceedings may be different from a general civil case, such as a health damage case, due to product quality, or environment pollution etc, representative or collective actions seldom apply to IP rights proceedings.

2.12 Restrictions on Assertion of Intellectual Property Right

Restrictions may apply if the patentee acquires the patent right maliciously and enforces the patent right. The actions of the patentee may constitute abuse of the patent right and may not be supported by the people's court.

Acquiring the patent right maliciously means that the individual concerned was well aware that the invention or creation should not be granted a patent right, and had acquired the patent right by evading the law or unjustified means in order to acquire unjustified interest or restrain the justified exploitation of others.

The following can be determined as malicious:

  • a patent application has been filed for the technical standards, such as the national or industry standard, already existing before the date of filing and acquisition of the patent right.
  • a patent application has been filed for a product obviously widely manufactured or used in a certain area and acquired the patent right.

In addition, an injunction may not be allowed by the people's court if granting the injunction harms the public interest, but the infringer should pay reasonable royalty fees.

The right to seek an injunction may also be restricted if the patent relates to a standard essential patent and the patentee refuses to grant a licence under a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms (FRAND) principle as they had promised to do.

3. Infringement

3.1 Necessary Parties to an Action for Infringement

The qualified party to an action for infringement should be the patentee or the interested person. The interested person could be a licensee or the successor of the patentee. Depending on the type of the licence agreement, the licensee may take the action of infringement independently or jointly with the patentee or based on the special authorisation of the patentee:

  • a sole licensee has the right to take an action for infringement in his or her own name without the involvement of the patentee. A sole licence means only the licensee has the right to implement the patent; even the patentee may not implement the patent.
  • an exclusive licensee may take the action of infringement together with the patentee or take the action of infringement alone if the patentee abandons their right to take the action. The exclusive licensee means both the licensee and the patentee have the right to implement the patent.
  • a non-exclusive licensee may take the action of infringement with the special authorisation of the patentee.

3.2 Direct and Indirect Infringement

Direct infringement and indirect infringement are different in this patent practice. Direct infringement is established if all the features in a patent claim (product or method) are found in the alleged infringing product or method and are implemented by a single party. The single party is the direct infringer. Indirect infringement is officially referred to as joint infringement in China, currently. Typical indirect infringements include:

  • anyone who, despite being aware that the product in question is the material, equipment, component, ietc particularly adapted for use in exploiting a patent, provides that product to another person who conducts the act of infringement on the patent right for production and business purposes;
  • anyone who, despite being aware that the product or process in question is a patented product or patented process, actively induces others to conduct the act of infringement on the patent right for production and business purposes;
  • the parties produce the components of an infringing product and the parties have division and co-operation of labour, etc. For direct infringement, the right holder may take action of infringement against the direct infringer to seek both an interim injunction and a permanent injunction and damages. For indirect infringement, the right holder should bring an action of infringement against all the infringers who constitute the joint infringement, not only against some of the joint infringers. Each of the joint infringers should be liable for paying damages and joint liabilities.

3.3 Scope of Protection for an Intellectual Property Right

According to Article 59 of the Chinese Patent Law, the scope of protection of the patent right for an invention or utility model will be determined by the terms of the claims. The description and the appended drawings may be used to interpret the claims. The scope of protection of the patent right for design will be determined by the product incorporating the patented design as shown in the drawings or photographs.

In determining the scope of protection of a claim, the court may apply all elements of principle: PHE principle, doctrine of equivalent principle, donation principle etc.

3.4 Defences Against Infringement

In a patent infringement proceeding, there are usually the following defences against infringement:

  • non-infringement defence;
  • prior-use right defence;
  • prior art defence;
  • patent exhaustion defence;
  • Bolar exception defence;
  • non-production and business purpose defence;
  • contract defence.

3.5 Role of Experts

Experts may act as witnesses to verify certain facts. The experts may also provide assistance to the parties. The role of the experts in these two situations is different. When an expert acts as a witness to certain facts, they are independent so that their opinion can be treated as a piece of evidence. The expert assistant to a party must give the opinion based on their understanding and knowledge of certain technical issues. However, the expert assistant will usually hold the same opinion as the party they represent.

3.6 Procedure for Construing the Terms of the Patent's Claims

In the Chinese legal system, there is no separate procedure for the construing of the terms of the patent's claims.

4. Revocation/Cancellation

4.1 Reasons and Remedies for Revocation/ Cancellation

According to Article 45 of Chinese Patent Law, after a patent is granted, if any entity or individual considers that the granting of said patent does not conform to the relevant provisions of this law, they may request that the Patent Re- examination Board invalidate the patent right.

According to Article 65 of Implementing Regulations of the Chinese Patent Law, the reasons for the request for invalidation refers to when the invention or creation on which the patent right is granted is not in conformity with the following:

  • Article 2 (concepts of the three kind of patents);
  • Paragraph 1 of Article 20 (security examination);
  • Article 22 (novelty or inventiveness for inventions and utility models);
  • Article 23 (novelty of design);
  • Paragraph 3 (enablement) and Paragraph 4 (fairly base) of Article 26;
  • Paragraph 2 of Article 27 (clarity of design); and
  • Article 33 (exceeding the original scope) of Patent Law;
  • Paragraph 2 of Article 20 (indispensable feature);
  • Paragraph 1 of Article 43 (exceeding the original scope for divisional application) of these Rules, or falls under Article 5, Article 25 (prohibited by the law) of Patent Law, or the applicant is not entitled to a patent right in accordance with Article 9 (double patenting) of Patent Law.

4.2 Partial Revocation/Cancellation

Partial invalidation is possible. For example, an independent claim of patent is invalidated in view of the prior art, but some of the defendant's claims may still survive after they are combined with an independent claim in view of the prior art.

4.3 Amendments in Revocation/Cancellation Proceedings

Amendment is possible during the invalidation proceedings before the Patent Re-examination Board. The amendment may be limited to the cancellation or combination of the claims or cancellation of certain technical solutions, but the protection scope of the claims cannot be broadened.

4.4 Revocation/Cancellation and Infringement

Invalidation and infringement are heard separately in China. Invalidation is heard by the Patent Re-examination Board, which may be appealed to the Beijing Intellectual Property Court, and the infringement is heard by a court that has power and jurisdiction over infringement cases. The timing between decisions in the infringement and revocation cases may be different. If the patent in dispute is a utility model or design, the infringement proceeding may be stayed upon the petition of the defendant if they file an invalidation petition with the Patent Re-examination Board within the term for response in the infringement proceedings. Where the patent concerned is a patent for invention, the infringement proceeding is not normally stayed even if the defendant makes a request to the court to stay the infringement proceeding, by filing an invalidation petition with the Patent Re-examination Board, within the term for response in the infringement proceedings.

5. Trial & Settlement

5.1 Special Procedural Provisions for Intellectual Property Rights

There is no significant difference in procedural provisions for IP rights proceedings and general civil dispute proceedings. The invalidation and infringement are heard separately in China. There is a staying procedure for patent infringement cases. If the patent in dispute is a utility model or design, the infringement proceeding may generally be stayed upon the petition of the defendant if they file an invalidation petition with the Patent Re-examination Board within the term for response of the infringement proceedings. Where the patent concerned is a patent for invention, the infringement proceeding would not normally be stayed even if the defendant were to request the court to stay the infringement proceeding by filing an invalidation petition with the Patent Re-examination Board within the term for response in the infringement proceedings.

5.2 Decision Makers

A case will be determined by legal and/or technical judges. There are no juries in China. The parties must have no influence on who the decision maker will be.

5.3 Settling the Case

From the very beginning of a case until the point at which the court makes a decision, the parties have the opportunity to settle the case. The court may set up a mediation if both parties agreed to have a mediation.

5.4 Other Court Proceedings

The parallel invalidation petition may have an influence on the current proceedings. An infringement case could be stayed if the patent is a utility model or design and an invalidation petition has been initiated. Please refer to 4.4 Revocation Cancellation and Infringement.

6. Remedies

6.1 Remedies for the Patentee

Except in the case of interim and permanent injunctions, the patentee may claim damages. So far, no enhanced damages are available for wilful infringement in China for patent infringement. The judges have discretion in ordering remedies, especially in ordering statutory damages, which can range from CNY10,000 to CNY1 million for patent infringement.

6.2 Rights of Prevailing Defendants

In China, a prevailing defendant generally absorbs their own expenses, including the attorney fees. However, if the plaintiff requested an interim injunction, evidence preservation or property preservation and it was granted by the court, the prevailing defendant can claim damages against the plaintiff by means of the foregoing measures.

6.3 Types of Remedy

The remedies are substantially the same for all technical intellectual property in the Chinese legal system.

6.4 Injunctions Pending Appeal

In China, the first instance judgment does not come into force if either party appeals to the higher court within the time limit. Any injunction granted in the first instance cannot be enforced at this stage. It can only be enforced after the second instance judgment has been made and come into effect.

7. Appeal

7.1 Special Provisions for Intellectual Property Proceedings

The appellate procedure for IP rights proceedings is the same as for other civil rights proceedings; there are no special provisions.

7.2 Type of Review

The appeal is generally limited to the facts and a legal review as laid out in the appeal.

8. Costs

8.1 Costs Before Filing a Lawsuit

The costs arising before filing a lawsuit mainly include fees for the collecting of evidence of infringement and evidence for damages, as warning letters are not required for filing a lawsuit. The costs for collecting evidence depend on the difficulties encountered in obtaining the evidence. The costs may be relatively low if the evidence can be purchased through a publicly available channel, eg the open market. The costs may be relatively high if it cannot be purchased through the open market. In addition, the cost may also include the notarisation fees, as the evidence may be easily acceptable by the court if it is obtained under witness of the notary public.

8.2 Responsibility for Paying Costs of Litigation

Each party is responsible for paying their own litigation costs, such as court fees, expenses and attorney fees. If the plaintiff wins, the defendant reimburses the court fees or at least part of the court fees, the necessary expenses for stopping the infringement carried out by the defendant, and reasonable attorney fees. The plaintiff need not reimburse the defendant attorney fees etc even if the plaintiff loses the case and there is no evidence to prove that the patentee had abused their patent right.

9. Alternative Dispute Resolution

9.1 Type of Actions for Intellectual Property

Alternative dispute resolution, such as arbitration or mediation, is not a common way of settling an intellectual property case, such as a patent infringement case, because arbitration or mediation requires both parties to be willing to settle the case by an arbitration clause in a contract or an agreement reached later on. A domain name dispute can usually be settled through alternative dispute resolution such as arbitration because, when the party registers the domain name, they agree to settle any dispute through arbitration.

10. Assignment & Licensing

10.1 Requirements or Restrictions for Assignment of Intellectual Property Rights

According to Article 10 of Chinese Patent Law, the right to apply for a patent and the patent rights may be assigned. Where a Chinese entity or individual is to assign the right to apply for a patent or a patent right to a foreigner or foreign enterprise or any foreign organisation, they will go through the formalities under relevant laws and administrative regulations. Where the right to apply for a patent or a patent right is assigned, the parties concerned are to conclude a written contract, and have the contract registered in the Intellectual Property Office. That contract will be announced by the Intellectual Property Office. The assignment of the right to apply for the patent or the patent right is to come into force as of the date of registration.

In addition, where a Chinese entity or individual is to assign a patent right to a foreigner or foreign enterprise or any foreign organisation, they are to go through the formalities under relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Moreover, if the assignment is between a Chinese individual or entity and a foreign individual or entity, the Technical Import and Export Administration Regulations will apply. According to the nature of the technology to be assigned (prohibited for transfer, restrict for transfer, free to transfer), an approval or recordation procedure will be requested by competent departments.

10.2 Procedure for Assigning an Intellectual Property Right

For the assignment of an IP right, such as a patent right, the assignor and assignee are required to enter into a written contract, and to have the contract registered at the Intellectual Property Office, who announces the contract. The assignment of the patent right is to come into force as of the date of registration.

10.3 Requirements for Restrictions to License an Intellectual Property Right

The assignment contract should be in writing and should be registered at the Intellectual Property Office, who announces the contract. The assignment of the patent right is to come into force as of the date of registration.

In addition, where a Chinese entity or individual is to assign a patent right to a foreigner or foreign enterprise or any foreign organisation, they are to go through the formalities under relevant laws and administrative regulations.

In particular, when a Chinese entity or individual is to assign a patent right to a foreigner or foreign enterprise or any foreign organisation, they are to go through the formalities under relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Moreover, if the assignment is between a Chinese individual or entity and a foreign individual or entity, the Technical Import and Export Administration Regulations will apply. According to the nature of the technology to be assigned (prohibited for transfer, restrict for transfer, free to transfer), an approval or recordation procedure will be requested by competent departments.

10.4 Procedure for Licensing an Intellectual Property Right

In order to license an IP right, such as a patent right, the licensor and the licensee are required to enter into a licence agreement, and to have the licence agreement recorded in the patent administrative department of the State Council, ie the Intellectual Property Office of China, within three months from the date that the licence agreement is entered into. Recordation of the licence agreement, or not, will not affect the effectiveness of the licence agreement.

If the licence is between a Chinese individual or entity and a foreign individual or entity, the Technical Import and Export Administration Regulations will apply. According to the nature of the technology to be assigned (prohibited for transfer, restrict for transfer, free to transfer), an approval or recordation procedure will be requested by competent departments.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Emails

From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.