China: "Bad Blood" Between Insurance And P2P Is Gradually Emerging (In Chinese)

Last Updated: 27 April 2016
Article by AnJie Law Firm

尽管监管层尚未发文正式叫停保险公司与 P2P平台的合作,但是,一些保险公司已经将与之相关的 "账户资金安全险 "悄然下架,其目的主要是为了防止互联网金融方面的风险向保险领域传导。

近日,关于"P2P平台称接到监管通知,要求终止自身的账户资金安全险(交易损失险)"的消息一度让保险公司卷入舆论漩涡。然而,截至《国际金融报》记者发稿时,保险监管部门尚未就此发布公开消息。叫停交易资金安全险的保险公司方面给记者的回复表示"这仅是正常业务调整"。

目前,P2P平台和保险公司的合作主要有起到外部增信作用的个人账户资金安全险、交易资金损失险、融资方抵押财产险、履约保证保险、风险准备金管理安全险,以及部分理财资产的安全承保保险等。

对外经贸大学保险系教授王国军认为,按风险程度排名,保障交易账户和资金安全的风险最大,信用保险次之,履约保证保险的风险最小。

中止相关险种与P2P平台合作的背后,是否也透露出监管层与险企的多重考量?

险企主动叫停

2015年是P2P平台爆发大量违约的一年。经济下行带来了投资回报率的显著下降,社会整体的负债利率水平呈现趋势性下降,这使得大量采取高息回报方式吸引资金投资的P2P开始暴露出问题。2016年1月份P2P网贷问题平台多达1351家,问题平台在P2P总平台数中的占比从2015年2月的23%上升至34%。

网贷之家最新研究数据显示,截至目前,与保险公司有"账户资金安全险"合作的网贷平台有57家。

一位与保险公司有相关业务合作的P2P平台负责人告诉记者,"合作的保险公司已经叫停交易资金安全险。"

中央财经大学法学院教授黄震亦认为,无论是从市场考虑还是监管要求考虑,现在是P2P网贷行业风险事故多发期,一些机构为了避险停止合作是正常反应。

以一家网贷平台的产品为例,保险公司对P2P平台的每笔交易承担保险责任,从充值、提现、投资、还款等几个环节全面保障投资者资金安全。其在保险期限内,若用户账户项下的交易资金被他人盗转、盗用,将由保险公司承担赔偿责任。

一位中型保险公司总精算师告诉记者,P2P平台的资金安全险并非对资金账户的投资盈利进行保险,而是对资金交易环节中的步骤有所保障。

公开资料显示,阳光保险、国寿财险、天安财险、中国人保等多家保险公司,都与P2P平台开展过合作。

王国军表示,鉴于目前P2P行业的法律规范不清晰,若按风险程度排名,保障交易账户和资金安全的风险最大。

北京工商大学保险系教授王绪瑾告诉记者,叫停资金安全险主要是为了防范金融风险,防止互联网金融方面的风险向保险领域传导。

值得一提的是,保监会发改部曾下发过一份《关于报送为互联网金融平台提供保险保障业务有关情况的通知》,明确要求财产险公司详细报送与互联网金融平台投保情况相关的各项数据,全面摸底财产险公司与互联网金融行业的合作情况。

"一些P2P平台打着保险公司旗号虚假宣传。"前述中型保险公司总精算师认为,以交易资金损失保险为例,一些P2P平台在宣传中夸大相关保险责任,利用保险公司为平台增信、背书,把"保障资金交易安全"扩大到"保障资金安全",将两个概念混为一谈。既损害了保险公司的声誉,也侵害了消费者的权益。

值得一提的是,一位保监会相关负责人告诉记者,"目前,已经发现有可能出现问题的理赔,这会导致较大的赔付率,监管层已经关注到此类风险。"

保险+P2P旨在信用背书

事实上,互联网金融火热的背后,披着互联网金融外衣非法集资、经营不善"跑路"、利用监管漏洞套利......随着风险频频暴露,网贷行业陷入了前所未有的信用危机。

中国社科院金融法律与金融监管研究基地副主任郑联盛在撰文中认为,在互联网金融迅猛发展的过程中,风险开始逐渐暴露和显现,主要有技术安全性、借款人信用违约以及平台庞氏骗局等三大风险。从业务形态上看P2P是风险最大的领域。

去年2月,P2P平台财路通与国寿财险展开合作后被爆出"信息不对称,涉嫌虚假宣传"。财路通在官网位置明确写着由"中国人寿财险与民安财产保险公司联手承保"、"100%本息保障"、"保险公司承保"等宣传字样。而国寿财险对此则表示:"国寿与财路通合作仅限人身意外伤害保险,其他风险保证保险均不在公司的承保范围。如果客户购买财路通理财产品,中国人寿不承担投资资金的任何责任。"这无疑是P2P平台借由险企扩大增信范围,夸大宣传效果。

去年7月,上海市长宁区市场监督管理局对友融投资管理(上海)有限公司下达了行政处罚决定书,责令其停止违法行为,消除影响,同时罚款10万元。而该公司涉嫌虚假宣传的起因便是自2014年3月起,在对外宣传彩页上,宣称与太保、平安、国寿财险、新华等金融机构有合作。

短融网首席执行官王坤认为,P2P与保险行业合作本身就存在诸多操作上的漏洞,是对资金安全进行承保还是对平台的融资项目进行承保很难界定清楚。"P2P跟保险公司合作,主要还是为了增强平台的信用背书,不过,这和监管层对P2P信息中介的角色定位相悖"。

据不完全统计,目前与保险企业有相关合作的P2P平台已有92家。但涉及到P2P网贷核心风险的履约保证保险,只有少数几家平台。尽管目前许多P2P平台公布与保险公司合作,多停留在战略合作层面,值得一提的是,目前还未发生过理赔情况。

利魔方首席执行官姚全也认为,资金安全险只保障账户安全,但不会保障履约,是假借保险名义来提高风控的手段。" 我认为取消相关险种是加强互联网金融业良性管理的需求,说明监管机构对网贷的态度是谨慎的,对规范行业发展是有裨益的,我们欢迎这样的措施。"

爱钱进首席执行官杨帆则认为,保险公司暂停P2P交易资金安全险正是旨在提高其相应的合作准入门槛,排除掉一批利用保险公司来进行夸大宣传的合作平台。"由于目前P2P借贷行业还很不规范,少数P2P平台却会借此大肆宣传,混淆视听,容易误导投资人,一旦平台出现问题,容易连带损害保险公司的声誉"。

金蛋理财首席执行官邓巍表示,虽然资金安全险被暂停,但是保险公司和P2P平台的合作形式很多。"账户资金安全险是其中一个,其他还有履约保证保险、信用保险等。部分平台被终止账户资金安全险,不会对其他互联网金融+保险的业务合作模式产生影响。"

监管不断升级

央行副行长潘功胜在中国互联网金融协会成立大会上指出,近期爆发的一系列风险事件,对行业的声誉和社会形象造成了很大的负面影响,引起了社会各界的高度关注,规范互联网金融发展已经成为社会各界的广泛共识。

事实上,自2014年下半年开始,保监会已经逐步加紧对于互联网金融风险的防范。从风险提示,到2016年初的重点排查,监管层越发重视此类风险。

2014年下半年,一些险企销售人员以保险公司名义推荐、销售P2P平台理财产品,结果由于平台负责人跑路导致个别保险公司陷入舆论危机。随后,保监会发布《中国保监会关于严格规范非保险金融产品销售的通知》,指出上述行为暴露出销售行为不规范、金融风险交叉传递等问题,有的甚至已经构成金融诈骗和非法集资,明令保险公司、保险专业中介机构不得销售未经相关金融监管部门批准的非保险金融产品。

2015年2月,保监会在发布的《关于防范保单"被升级"为P2P产品的风险提示》中明确指出了一些不良销售人员借口保单升级,怂恿消费者退保并购买高收益理财产品后将资金转移;4月,保监会发布《再次关注和防范P2P平台风险》的通知,指出少数P2P平台大量招募原属保险公司个险渠道的保险从业人员,采用非法手段套取处于正常期的保单资金,给广大保险消费者造成相当大的损失;10月,保监会修改《中国保监会关于严格规范非保险金融产品销售的通知》,将通知中的"保险销售(经纪)从业人员"全部替换为"从业人员",进一步扩大监管范围。

伴随着更多风险跨界问题的逐渐暴露,保监会监管也不断升级。2016年1月,中国保监会印发了《关于加强互联网平台保证保险业务管理的通知》,针对互联网平台保证保险业务存在的问题,重点对互联网平台选择、信息披露、内控管理等提出明确要求。

(来源:国际金融报, 吴婧)

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