China: The Antitrust Enforcement Announcement Of SAIC: Chongqing Qingyang Pharma Abused Its Market Dominance By Refusing To Deal (In Chinese)

Last Updated: 21 January 2016
Article by AnJie Law Firm

经国家工商行政管理总局授权,重庆市工商行政管理局于2014年12月对重庆青阳药业有限公司涉嫌滥用市场支配地位拒绝交易行为进行立案调查,于2015年10月28日对涉案当事人作出行政处罚决定,现予公告。

处罚决定书链接:重庆青阳药业有限公司涉嫌滥用市场支配地位拒绝交易案

二〇一五年十二月二十

附件: 重庆市工商行政管理局

行政处罚决定书

渝工商经处 字〔2015〕15 号

当事人:重庆青阳药业有限公司

类型:有限责任公司

住所:重庆市江北区寸滩水口兴药村426号4-2号

法定代表人:杨立新

注册资本:6220万人民币整

成立日期:2002年05月21日

注册号:500105000027516

经营范围:生产片剂(含激素类)、胶囊剂、颗粒剂、软膏剂、溶液剂(外用)、原料药(度米芬、磷酸哌嗪、枸橼酸哌嗪、别嘌醇、茶碱、氨茶碱、氨丁三醇、齐墩果酸、硝苯地平、盐酸雷尼替丁、吡哌酸、阿普唑仑、阿昔洛韦、双嘧达莫、吡拉西坦、法莫替丁、联苯苄唑、依诺沙星、盐酸左旋咪唑、西咪替丁、氯化钙)、精神药品(阿普唑仑原料药、阿普唑仑片)、药用辅料(羧甲淀粉钠)(有效期至2015年12月21日)。一般经营项目:从事货物及技术进出口业务。【国家法律、行政法规禁止的不得经营;国家法律、行政法规规定取得许可后方可从事经营的,未取得许可前不得经营】

重庆青阳药业有限公司到我局咨询,称其在2013年9月与湖南湘百合医药公司(以下简称湘百合公司)签订《别嘌醇原料经销协议》(以下简称《协议》)后,客户反映其经营行为违反《中华人民共和国反垄断法》(以下简称《反垄断法》)的相关规定。为避免更大的法律责任,当事人向我局提供了《协议》原件和别嘌醇原料药、制剂的相关生产情况,请求我局对其经营活动是否违法进行确认。对此,我局按照《工商行政管理机关查处垄断协议、滥用市场支配地位案件程序规定》(以下简称《程序规定》)对当事人反映的问题开展核查,走访了有关部门和机构,对当事人和相关企业进行初步调查。经核查,我局认为当事人涉嫌滥用在别嘌醇原料药市场上的支配地位实施拒绝交易行为。2014年11月,我局按照《程序规定》将核查情况报告国家工商行政管理总局并申请授权我局对当事人的行为进行立案调查。2014年12月,国家工商行政管理总局授权我局对当事人启动反垄断调查。本局依法于2015年8月11日向当事人送达了《重庆市工商行政管理局行政处罚听证告知书》,依法告知了当事人拟作出行政处罚的事实、理由、依据、处罚内容以及当事人依法享有陈述、申辩或举行听证的权利。当事人在规定期限内未向本局提出陈述、申辩意见也未要求举行听证。

一、相关市场的认定

滥用市场支配地位行为的主体是在相关市场具有支配地位的经营者。因此,界定相关市场通常是查处滥用市场支配地位行为的重要步骤和起点。

《反垄断法》第十二条第二款规定:"本法所称相关市场,是指经营者在一定时期内就特定商品或者服务(以下统称商品)进行竞争的商品范围和地域范围。"《国务院反垄断委员会关于相关市场界定指南》第三条规定:"在反垄断执法实践中,通常需要界定相关商品市场和相关地域市场。相关商品市场是根据商品的特性、用途及价格等因素,由需求者认为具有较为紧密替代关系的一组或一类商品所构成的市场。相关地域市场是指需求者获取具有较为紧密替代关系的商品的地理区域。"第四条规定:"在反垄断执法实践中,相关市场范围的大小主要取决于商品(地域)的可替代程度。在市场竞争中对经营者行为构成直接和有效竞争约束的,是市场存在需求者认为具有较强替代关系的商品或能够提供这些商品的地域。因此界定相关市场主要从需求者角度进行需求替代分析。"本案涉嫌的违法行为是当事人滥用市场支配地位拒绝向市场提供其生产的别嘌醇原料药。我局依照《反垄断法》和《国务院反垄断委员会关于相关市场界定的指南》的规定,围绕别嘌醇原料药对相关市场进行考量。

(一)本案相关商品市场

药品是一种特殊的商品,其质量直接关系人们的身体健康。根据《中华人民共和国药品管理法》(以下简称《药品管理法》)第一百零二条规定:"药品,是指用于预防、治疗、诊断人的疾病,有目的地调节人的生理机能并规定有适应症或者功能主治、用法和用量的物质,包括中药材、中药饮片、中成药、化学原料药及其制剂、抗生素、生化药品、放射性药品、血清、疫苗、血液制品和诊断药品等。辅料,是指生产药品和调配处方时所用的赋形剂和附加剂。"化学原料药及其制剂都属于

药品。在我国境内从事化学原料药及其制剂的研制、生产、经营、使用和监督管理的单位或个人,必须遵守《药品管理法》的规定。

原料药的概念主要是相对于制剂来说,是指用于生产各类制剂的原料药物,是制剂中的有效成份,由化学合成、植物提取或者生物技术所制备的各种用来作为药用的粉末、结晶、浸膏等,旨在用于药品制造中的任何一种物质或物质的混合物。此种物质在疾病的诊断、治疗、症状缓解,处理或疾病的预防中有药理活性或其它直接作用,或者能影响机体的功能或结构。化学原料药只有加工成为制剂,才能成为可供临床应用的药品。

化学药品制剂是为适应治疗或预防的需要,按照一定的剂型要求所制成的,可以最终提供给用药对象使用的药品。

相对于制剂而言,化学原料药的生产往往包含复杂的化学变化或生物变化。化学原料药的生产是基于化学单元反应,以及单元化工操作进行的。因化学原料药的生产涉及高压、高温、剧毒、易燃易爆、腐蚀等安全问题,国家对化学原料药的生产采用非常严格的认证制度进行监管。而制剂的生产过程很少有化学结构的变化,相对原料药生产较安全。使用化学原料药生产其制剂主要涉及药剂学相关知识,其解决的是处方设计、生产工艺、合理应用以及药物制剂剂型和药物的吸收、分布、代谢及排泄关系的问题。

别嘌醇是治疗高尿酸血症的常见药。高尿酸血症又称痛风,是嘌呤代谢紊乱所致的疾病,其临床特点为高尿酸血症及由此而引起的痛风性急性关节炎反复发作、痛风石沉积、痛风石性慢性关节炎和关节畸形,常影响肾脏,引起慢性间质性肾炎和尿酸肾结石形成。高尿酸血症近几年的发病率不断上升,已成为一种常见疾病,这与人们生活水平的提高有密不可分的关系。人们食用过多含有嘌呤的各种高营养食物,使嘌呤的代谢物尿酸增高,并长期处在一个很高的水平,不能完全排出体外,导致高尿酸血症发生。临床上,治疗高尿酸血症主要从三个环节入手,一是阻止尿酸在血液中的形成;二是促进尿酸排泄;三是在痛风病急性发作期止痛。

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