China: The Antitrust Enforcement Announcement Of SAIC: Guangzhou Panyu Animation & Game Association Organized To Conclude A Monopoly Agreement (In Chinese)

Last Updated: 20 January 2016
Article by AnJie Law Firm

经国家工商行政管理总局授权,广东省工商行政管理局于2014年7月对广州市番禺动漫游艺行业协会涉嫌垄断行为进行立案调查,于2015年7月9日对涉案当事人作出行政处罚决定,现予公告。

附:

行政处罚决定书

粤工商经处字〔2015〕第2号

当事人:广州市番禺动漫游艺行业协会

机构类型:社团法人

登记证号:社证字第440181146号

住所:广州市番禺区东环街迎星东路143号星力动漫游戏产业园A209。

业务范围:协助政府进行行业管理,制定行规行约,维护会员权益,开展交流、培训等活动。

法定代表人:徐建林

一、案由

2013年3月13日,《广州日报》刊登了一篇名为《广州会展业惊现"排他协议"—产业过剩竞争激烈"搭车展"、"撞车展"频上演》的报道,反映番禺动漫游戏产业博览会的主办方当事人发起了一份由52家会员及联盟企业共同签署的《展会联盟协议书》。该协议书明确规定,当事人的会员单位及联盟企业仅参加由该协会主导、主办或者承办的广州展会,不能参加与本行业无关或协会认为不能参加的展会。经核查,我局认为上述报道反映的情况基本属实,当事人的行为涉嫌违反《中华人民共和国反垄断法》。2014年6月9日,我局根据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》、《工商行政管理机关查处垄断协议、滥用市场支配地位案件程序规定》,将核查情况书面报告国家工商行政管理总局。2014年7月1日,国家工商行政管理总局批复授权我局开展立案调查。2014年7月21日,我局正式立案。

二、查明的基本事实

  1. 2012年5月25日,当事人草拟了一份《展会联盟协议书》。2012年6月2日,当事人召集有关协会会员企业召开"第二届理事工作会议",共有21家协会的会员企业派代表参加了本次会议。在此次会议上,当事人组织与会企业讨论并通过了其草拟的《展会联盟协议书》,并以"会议记录"形式明确,从2013年开始倡议会员企业只参加由协会主导或协会承办的展览会,推行《展会联盟协议书》。本次与会的企业中,有19家现场在上述协议书上签名盖章。会后,协会的两名工作人员将上述协议书送到本行业协会的其他会员处,征集签名、盖章后拿回协会。最终有52家本行业的会员企业在《展会联盟协议书》中签名、盖章,成为《展会联盟协议书》的签约企业。
  2. 《展会联盟协议书》主要涉及以下内容:

    "广州市番禺动漫游艺行业协会的会员单位、本协议的联盟企业郑重承诺:除本协议约定的特殊情况外,仅参加由本协会主导、主办或者承办的广州展会,如番 禺商用动漫游戏产业博览会(GAGA展)、广州电子游戏国际产业展(GTI)。并在参与上述展会过程中遵守协会的相关指引,共同打造文明办展,参展的良好行业氛围。"

    "协会会员或者本协议联盟企业如需参与非协会主导、主办或者承办的其他广州展会,需在参展前提前30天书面向协会提出申请,并由协会书面批示方可。"

    "协会会员单位、本协议联盟企业一直同意,抵制非法展会、绝不参加与本行业无关或者协会认为不参加的展会,共同建设合法、公平、有序的办展环境,共创番禺动漫游戏、游艺产业的美好未来。"
  3. 番禺商用动漫游戏产业博览会(GAGA展)是由当事人主办、广州市建麟会展服务有限公司承办,展会所得收益归当事人和广州市建麟会展服务有限公司。广州市建麟会展服务有限公司是为GAGA展的举办而专门成立的公司,与当事人存在关联关系,该公司的法定代表人郭志雄,同时也是当事人的前任法定代表人和现任秘书长。广州电子游戏国际产业展(GTI)是由广州博览会组委会办公室主办、广州市会展服务中心有限公司承办、当事人协办。

三、《展会联盟协议书》属于垄断协议

《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十三条规定:"禁止具有竞争关系的经营者达成下列垄断协议:(一)固定或者变更商品价格;(二)限制商品的生产数量或者销售数量;(三)分割销售市场或者原材料采购市场;(四)限制购买新技术、新设备或者限制开发新技术、新产品;(五)联合抵制交易;(六)国务院反垄断执法机构认定的其他垄断协议。本法所称垄断协议,是指排除、限制竞争的协议、决定或者其他协同行为。"根据上述法律规定,我局认为垄断协议的构成要件包括:行为人之间存在竞争关系;行为人达成了协议、决定或者其他协同行为;行为人达成的协议、决定或者其他协同行为具有排除、限制竞争的效果。

本案中:首先,《展会联盟协议书》的签署者是当事人的52家会员企业,该52家会员企业从事的行业都是动漫游艺行业,属于经营同种或类似业务的独立经 营者,在广州市区域内相互之间具有明显的竞争关系。其次,上述52家会员企业达成了协议,并通过签字、盖章,以《展会联盟协议书》的书面形式表现出来,对签署企业产生现实或者潜在的制约力和影响力。再次,在上述52家会员企业签署的《展会联盟协议书》中,所有协议签署企业统一承诺,仅参加由当事人主导、主办或者承办的广州展会,如番禺商用动漫游戏产业博览会(GAGA展)、广州电子游戏国际产业展(GTI),如需参加非当事人主导、主办或者承办的其他广州展会,需经过当事人的书面批示,上述协议内容对各协议签署企业参加展览会的选择权进行了限定,其实质是各签署企业联合抵制了广州市范围内除当事人主导、主办或者承办的动漫展会之外的其他动漫展会(比如广州市鸿威展览服务有限公司承办的"广州鸿威展"等动漫展会),这将排斥、限制动漫游戏展会行业本应有的自由竞争,对广州市动漫游戏展会市场的健康发展产生现实或潜在的危害。

综上,我局认为本案所述的《展会联盟协议书》属于《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十三条第一款第(五)项所禁止的"联合抵制交易"垄断协议。

四、当事人存在组织推动垄断协议达成的行为

从上述查明的事实可以证明,当事人对《展会联盟协议书》的达成,起到了组织和推动作用。首先,从《展会联盟协议书》的签署过程来看,当事人负责了《展会联盟协议书》整体文本的起草,并组织召开"第二届理事工作会议",讨论通过其草拟的《展会联盟协议书》。在会议现场只有19家企业签名盖章的情况下,会后,当事人又专门派出工作人员前往部分协会会员企业征集签名盖章,最终获取了52家会员企业的签名盖章,进一步推动扩大了协议书的影响范围。其次,从《展会联盟协议书》的内容来看,协议书规定签署会员企业只能参与当事人主导、主办或承办的动漫游戏展览会,如果参加非该协会主导、主办或者承办的其他广州展会,需由该协会书面批示。由此可以看出,当事人通过协议深度介入并制约了相关会员企业在参加行业展览会方面的选择,是《展会联盟协议书》的参与者和推动者。

五、当事人的抗辩分析

本案中,当事人提交了有关情况说明,主要提出了如下抗辩理由:1.该协议书 是当事人应会员企业的要求草拟的,目的是为了减少会员企业参加展会的数量;2.该协议书不属于垄断协议,不符合法律规定的垄断协议的构成要件;3.形成该协议书的行业经营者主观上是为了倡导合法合理规划办展,客观上也未依据协议书对具有竞争关系的其他经营者作排他、限制竞争等不法行为,协议书形成后并未对本行业、行业经营者、其他相关的经营者或者竞争者造成任何影响或实质性损害等后果; 4.其行业协会为促进行业各经营者良性竞争、携手共进,因此将行业部分经营者的要求加以记录,不存在"组织"行为;5.该协议书形成后,当事人没有依据该协议书形成任何行业性的规定、倡导或者其他书面的文件,没有通过任何方式对行业经营者参与任何展会加以干涉。

我局认为:1.当事人的业务范围是"协助政府进行行业管理,制定行规行约,维护会员权益,开展交流、培训等活动"。《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十一条、第十六条分别规定"行业协会应当加强行业自律,引导本行业的经营者依市场规律开展市场交易,维护市场正当的竞争秩序"、"行业协会不得组织本行业的经营者从事本章禁止的垄断行为"。当事人作为一个独立的社团法人,牵头草拟并推动签署《展会联盟协议书》时,应该清楚认识到该行为是否属于本身业务范围以及该行为是否将产生违法的法律后果,应成员企业的要求并不能成为免除当事人自身行为所产生法律责任的合法理由。2.上文已经对垄断协议的构成要件进行了详细的论述,《展会联盟协议书》构成《中华人民共和国反垄断法》所指的垄断协议。3.协议的签署对相关企业在展会的选择方面具有现实或潜在的影响和制约,而按照协议书规定的内容,相关企业联合抵制当事人主办、主导或承办以外的展会,这必然对广州地区动漫游戏展会行业产生现实或者潜在的排除或限制竞争后果,损害广州地区的其他相关动漫游艺展览企业的利益。4.如上文所述,当事人参与了《展会联盟协议书》的草拟、签署通过等全过程,并在其中起到牵头和主导的作用,其组织行为显而易见。5.如上文所述,协议签署达成本身就已经对签署企业产生现实或潜在的影响和制约,对广州地区动漫游艺展览行业的自由竞争产生现实或潜在危害,与协议后是否再行出台规定、文件干涉行业经营者参加展会没有关系。

根据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十五条的规定,经营者能够证明所达成的垄断协议属于第十五条所规定的情形的,其垄断协议行为可以获得豁免,但当事人 未能提出符合《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十五条所规定的豁免情形。

综上,我局认为当事人的抗辩理由不成立,不予以采纳。

六、本案的主要证据

本案当事人组织推动其行业的经营者从事法律禁止的垄断行为,有以下主要证据:

  1. 当事人《社会团体法人登记证书》和《广州市番禺动漫游艺行业协会》复印件,证明当事人的身份真实性。
  2. 当事人法定代表人徐建林的身份证复印件、委托授权书原件、受委托人郭志雄的身份证复印件,证明当事人法定代表人及受委托人身份真实性。
  3. 向当事人调取的署名为"广州市番禺动漫游艺行业协会"的《展会联盟协议书》,证明了该协议存在联合抵制广州市范围内除当事人主导、主办或者承办的动漫展会之外的其他动漫展会的内容,属于垄断协议的事实。
  4. 签署《展会联盟协议书》的52家会员企业的工商登记基本信息,证明签署协议书的52家会员企业在经营业务上存在竞争关系。
  5. 2014年9月10日当事人法定代表人的授权委托人郭志雄的询问笔录,证明当事人草拟《展会联盟协议书》的具体过程,证明当事人在组织推动垄断协议达成过程中所起的具体作用。
  6. 广州市鸿威展览服务有限公司提供的2012年至2014年鸿威展参展名单和2014年9月10日对该公司事业部总经理胡玉华的询问笔录,证明2013年协议实施后当事人会员企业参与广州鸿威动漫展的企业数量从2012年42家急剧减少至2013年的15家,也证明该协议书的签署对动漫游戏展览行业竞争的影响和危害。
  7. 当事人2012年6月2日所作的"会议记录",证明当事人召集广州市富佳电子开发有限公司等21家会员企业参加"第二届理事工作会议"的具体情况,证明当事人在其会员企业达成《展会联盟协议书》的过程中发挥组织推动作用的事实。
  8. 2014年8月21日当事人的会员单位广州市富佳电子开发有限公司霍婉玲的询问笔录、2014年9月1日广州市神采飞扬动漫科技有限公司郝蒙刚的询问笔录、2014年9月1日广州市展晖动漫科技有限公司曾庆贤的询问笔录,证明当事人确实以行业协会名义推出过《展会联盟协议书》,证明当事人在达成《展会联盟协议书》的过程中发挥组织推动作用的事实。
  9. 2014年9月2日广州电子游戏国际产业展(GTI展)的承办单位广州市会展服务中心有限公司负责人欧阳云的询问笔录,证明当事人与GTI展存在关联关系即当事人为GTI展的协办方的具体事实。
  10. 2014年9月17日当事人法定代表人的授权委托人郭志雄的询问笔录,证明《展会联盟协议书》由其协会的两名工作人员送到协会的其他会员处,征集签名、盖章的事实。
  11. 2014年11月13日广州市建麟会展服务有限公司法定代表人郭志雄的询问笔录,证明广州市建麟会展服务有限公司为GAGA展的承办单位,该公司是当事人为GAGA展的举办而特意创设的公司。
  12. 2014年9月10日当事人法定代表人的授权委托人郭志雄的询问笔录、2014年11月13日广州市建麟会展服务有限公司法定代表人郭志雄的询问笔录,证明GAGA展的收益为当事人及广州市建麟会展服务有限公司所有,GAGA展给当事人带来了实际的经济利益。
  13. 当事人提供的《关于<展会联盟协议书>的情况说明》,证明当事人作为行业协会,在垄断协议形成时未依法加强行业自律,引导本行业的经营者依法竞争,维护市场竞争秩序的事实。
  14. 广州星力动漫游戏产业园有限公司出具的《情况说明》及部分参与签署协议的会员企业经营场所的照片,证明案件调查中部分参与签署协议的会员企业已经停止租赁,不再经营。

七、对当事人行为的定性与处罚

我局认为,《展会联盟协议书》的内容涉及相同或类似行业有竞争关系的动漫游艺企业,在行业展会的选择上,联合抵制当事人主办、主导或承办以外的行业展会,排除、限制了广州地区动漫游艺展览行业的自由竞争,破坏了市场竞争秩序,属于《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十三条第一款第(五)项所指的联合抵制交易垄断协议。当事人作为行业协会,本应当加强行业自律,引导本行业的经营者依市场规律开展市场交易,维护市场正当的竞争秩序。但当事人积极主导并全程参与了《展会联盟协议书》的起草、签署过程,为该垄断协议的成功达成发挥了重要作用。当事人的行为违反了《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十六条"行业协会不得组织本行业的经营者从事本章禁止的垄断行为"和《工商行政管理机关禁止垄断协议行为的规定》第九条第(二)项"禁止行业协会以下列方式组织本行业的经营者从事本规定禁止的垄断协议行为:(二)召集、组织或者推动本行业的经营者达成含有排除、限制竞争内容的协议、决议、纪要、备忘录等"的规定,涉嫌构成行业协会组织或推动本行业经营者达成垄断协议的行为。案件调查过程中,当事人能配合调查,态度较好。根据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第四十六条第三款"行业协会违反本法规定,组织本行业的经营者达成垄断协议的,反垄断执法机构可以处五十万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,社会团体登记管理机关可以依法撤销登记"的规定,决定对当事人作出如下处罚:

(一)责令停止违法行为;

(二)处以罚款10万元。

当事人应自收到本处罚决定书之日起15日内,按照《广东省省级非税收入缴款通知书》的要求方式,将罚(没)款项缴纳到广东省省级非税收入账户,到期不缴纳的,每日可按罚款数额的3%加处罚款。

当事人如不服本行政处罚决定,可在接到本处罚决定书之日起六十日内,向广东省人民政府或国家工商行政管理总局申请复议,也可以在六个月内依法直接向人民法院起诉。

广东省工商行政管理局

2015年7月9日

来源:国家工商局官网

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