China: 招投标监督机构的职责边界探析——从一起中标投诉说起

Last Updated: 15 August 2019
Article by Xiujun Zheng
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

摘要

招投标政府主管部门有权依据《招标投标法》、《政府采购法》等法律、行政法规及地方性法规对招投标的全过程进行监管,但是针对投诉引起的监督应严格在法律界限内进行,不得无限扩大监督权限、损害市场参与主体的合法权益。在本篇文章中,笔者将结合实例对招投标监督机构的职责边界进行探析,以期与读者进行有益的交流与分享。

没有规矩,不成方圆。虽然我国早已制定了较为严密的招投标法律,但在招投标过程中,依然存在各种各样的问题:例如围标、串标、业绩造假等等。最低价中标这一原则被广泛适用,虽法律规定中标价不得低于成本价,但因"成本价"的核算方式不同,使得原本希望通过招投标招到最合适的中标人,却往往招到了最差的中标人。为了解决这些问题、实现公开、公正、公平招投标,招投标的全过程都需要依法进行。

关于对招标过程中需要监督,《中华人民共和国招标投标法》、《中华人民共和国政府采购法》、《中华人民共和国招标投标法实施条例》中都有规定。一些地方性法规例如《安徽省实施<中华人民共和国招标投标法>办法》、《安徽省公共资源交易监督管理办法》、《合肥市公共资源交易管理条例》里也有规定。据此,合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局对发生在合肥市范围的招投标进行监督管理,是有依据的。

一、因投诉引发的行政诉讼

L县某水厂的机械设备采购及安装项目由该县住房和城乡建设局委托A项目管理有限公司公开招标。2017年9月30日,A公司发布最终招标公告,确定投标人资格条件之一是"具备机电工程施工总承包一级资质或建筑机电安装工程专业承包一级资质",也就是说投标人具备的资质符合其中一个条件就可以参加投标。

Z公司具有建筑机电安装工程专业承包一级资质,符合该招标文件中的资质规定及其他要求,遂参与该项目投标,开标后被确定为第一中标候选人。

J公司具备机电工程施工总承包一级资质,是第二中标候选人,但是该公司认为本涉案项目投标人的资质条件只能是具备机电工程施工总承包一级资质,不应包含建筑机电安装工程专业承包一级资质,于是,该公司就向招标代理机构A公司提出异议,认为Z公司不符合国家规定的投标人资质条件,评标委员会应当否决其中标的资格。A公司认为该异议不能成立,于是J公司就向合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局投诉,要求确认Z公司的中标无效。

但是,合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局最终作出的投诉处理决定书却是决定涉案项目"招标无效"!合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局非但没有审查Z公司中标无效与否,反而确认整个"招标无效",导致原参与投标的众多利害关系人的投标工作被全盘否定!J公司投诉的目的是只要确认Z公司的中标无效,他们作为第二中标候选人,自然可以替补中标,但是合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出了"招标无效"的决定,就否认了所有的招标行为,J公司也中标无望。如果这个决定不被撤销,这个项目只能重新招标。在这种情况下,Z公司提起了行政诉讼,笔者是代理人之一。这是案件德恒杭州分所和合肥分所合作的典范。笔者认真查阅了与案件有关的法条、判例,发现各地招投标监督机构对招投标投诉审查的方式不同,得出的结论也不同,但大部分地区的招投标监督机构能够认真履行职责,规范招投标合法进行。例如,南京市城乡建设委员会、江苏省住房和城乡建设厅被江苏伟丰建筑安装集团有限公司告到法庭,江苏省南京市中级人民法院作出(2017)苏01行终464号行政判决,判决维持了南京市城乡建设委员会作出的处罚决定和江苏省住房和城乡建设厅作出的复议决定。而本案的审判结果是撤销了合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出的处理决定。

二、Z公司赢了官司,丢了项目

Z公司接到合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出的投诉处理决定书后,立即向合肥市包河区人民法院提起行政诉讼,请求法院依法判决撤销该决定,并把A、J公司作为第三人参与诉讼。Z公司认为本公司符合招标文件设置的中标人资质条件、合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出的投诉处理决定书认定事实错误、程序违法、适用法律不当,请求法院撤销该决定。作为被告的合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局认为本局作出的决定正确,要求维持。A公司同意合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局的观点。J公司虽然也认为法院应该撤销合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出的处理决定,但其主张的理由不同于Z公司。法庭上各方均充分陈述观点,辩论非常激烈!

Z公司在诉讼的过程中,不仅向合肥市市公共资源交易监督管理局书面申请停止本项目的重新招标活动,而且同时向包河区人民法院申请停止该决定的执行、停止重新招标活动,维护其合法权益!但是这两项申请均未被采纳。尽管包河区人民法院经审理后作出(2018)皖0111行初26号行政判决书判决:"一、撤销被告合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局作出的合公决【2018】4号投诉处理决定书;二、责令被告合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局自本判决生效之日起30个工作日内重新作出行政行为。"但是这个项目经过重新招标后,Z、J两个公司均未中标。A公司一审赢了官司,丢了项目;J公司经过投诉,也没有得到该公司所想要的结果,实在让两个公司感到意外。

合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局提起上诉,为"荣誉"而战的Z公司依然委托笔者这个团队的律师继续代理,合肥市中级人民法院经过审理,作出了"驳回上诉,维持原判"的(2019)皖01行终174号行政判决。

经过本团队律师据理力争,两审法院均支持了我们的观点。从诉讼角度看,Z公司赢了,作为代理人,我们内心深处充满喜悦。但是这种赢了官司、丢了项目的情况在中国招投标行业可能并非少数,原因何在,值得认真思考!

三、招标监督机构的职责范围与边界

(一)投标人的投诉范围需加以限制

《工程建设项目招标投标活动投诉处理办法》第二条规定:"本办法适用于工程建设项目招标投标活动的投诉及其处理活动。前款所称招标投标活动,包括招标、投标、开标、评标、中标以及签订合同等各阶段。"从这一规定可以看出,在招投标的各个阶段出现的违法行为都可以投诉,本案J公司作为第二中标候选人的投诉虽然发生在中标阶段,但是其投诉的内容却是对招标代理机构根据专家的意见和招标人的要求设置的投标人资质条件,认为只有自己的企业具备的机电工程施工总承包一级资质才能施工本项目,这种唯我独尊的作法有排挤竞争对手之嫌,有违该办法第八条:"投诉人不得以投诉为名排挤竞争对手,不得进行虚假、恶意投诉,阻碍招标投标活动的正常进行。"之规定。因此,笔者认为并非所有的投诉,监督管理部门都要支持!

另外,招投标涉及到各行各业,专业性比较强,由各种专家组成的专家库是保证招投标质量的保障措施之一,潜在投标人或者招投标监督管理机构随意推翻专家的意见,也有违设立专家库的初衷。

(二)招投标监督机构重新招标的条件限制

招投标过程中,第一中标人候选人提出中止重新招投标的申请后,招标投标管理机构是否可以责令招标代理机构中止重新招标?笔者认为,建设工程、项目的招投标是件非常严肃的事情,非法定事由且经法定程序,招标不得随意被确认无效!《中华人民共和国招标投标法》及其实施条例规定需要重新招标的情形少之又少。例如《中华人民共和国招标投标法》第四十二条规定:"评标委员会经评审,认为所有投标都不符合招标文件要求的,可以否决所有投标。依法必须进行招标的项目的所有投标被否决的,招标人应当依照本法重新招标。"《中华人民共和国招标投标法实施条例》第八十一条规定:"依法必须进行招标的项目的招标投标活动违反招标投标法和本条例的规定,对中标结果造成实质性影响,且不能采取补救措施予以纠正的,招标、投标、中标无效,应当依法重新招标或者评标。"法律严格规定了应当重新招标的条件,合肥市公共资源监督管理局在没有穷尽补救措施的情况下就作出"招标无效"的决定显然是错误的,两审法院都判决撤销是完全正确的。特别是合肥市公共资源监督管理局在接到Z公司中止重新招标的申请后,以其无权干涉招标代理机构重新招标的活动为由不履行监督职责导致本案重新招标继续举行,也是失职的!

(三)Z公司的损失可申请国家赔偿

第一轮招标过程中,Z公司排名第一,且J公司的投诉本就不应被支持,Z公司通过诉讼依然没能阻止本项目的重新招标,且在重新招标的过程中,没能中标。因此Z公司损失了中标的利益,虽历经两次法律诉讼,依然未能挽回预期利益。

合肥市公共资源监督管理局作出的处理决定已经被生效的法律文书撤销,充分证明其作出的处理决定错误。《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》第四条规定:"行政机关及其工作人员在行使行政职权时有下列侵犯财产权情形之一的,受害人有取得赔偿的权利:......(四)造成财产损害的其他违法行为。"从法律的角度来看,Z公司可以就合肥市公共资源监督管理局决定招标无效的行为提起国家赔偿,以弥补损失。

(四)招投标监督管理部门的监督应有边界

从这个案件可以看出,合肥市公共资源交易监督管理局超出投诉人J公司的投诉范围进行监督,并没有取得好的监督效果!如何确定公共资源交易监督管理局的监督边界?

1.法定监督是全面监督。从法理上说,招投标监督管理部门有职权对招投标的全过程进行监督,不论是招标条件的设置还是中标候选人的确定!而实践中由于各种条件的限制,这样的全方位监督确实是很难实现。

2.投诉监督应有针对性。招投标监督管理部门对于现实中中标人或者利害关系人提起的投诉,能够而且应该认真对待。中标人或者利害关系人就具体招投标案件中存在的问题提起的投诉属于具体行政行为,按照行政法的相关规定,招投标监督管理部门应该按照法定程序作出处理决定。《工程建设项目招标投标活动投诉处理办法》第二十一条规定:"负责受理投诉的行政监督部门应当自受理投诉之日起三十个工作日内,对投诉事项做出处理决定,并以书面形式通知投诉人、被投诉人和其他与投诉处理结果有关的当事人。"也就是说负责受理投诉的行政监督部门是"对投诉事项做出处理决定",这样规定的目的在于充分发挥监督的作用!因此,针对投诉的监督范围仅局限在投诉范围之内!不宜扩大!

结语

《中华人民共和国招标投标法》自1999年颁布以来,已经整整十年了,这十年是我国经济发展最为迅速的十年,也是自来水厂等基础设施建设突飞猛进的十年。因此,《中华人民共和国招标投标法》的滞后性已经显现。随着招投标范围的不断扩大,对违法招投标加大监管势在必行,对招投标监督机关的职权范围、监督程序进行可操作性规定,才能做到良法善治,切实发挥监督的作用,确保招标投标的公正有序!

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