China: 浅议开发商应对业主断供的风险防范

Last Updated: 28 May 2019
Article by DeHeng Law Offices
Most Read Contributor in China, June 2019

随着经济下行,实体经济不景气,业主断供已成为困扰开发商和银行的一大难题。在业主和开发商刚刚度过销售阶段这个"蜜月期"之后,随之而来的问题却异常的残酷。业主通过银行按揭贷款方式买房,将开发商和银行也紧紧的捆绑在一起。在业主断供的情况下,开发商该如何维护自己的合法权益呢?

一、开发商、业主、银行三方的合同目的、主要权利和义务分析

在开发商承担阶段性保证责任的商品房按揭贷款关系中,房屋权属转移并设立抵押权之前,开发商仍然享有房屋的所有权,但承担业主归还贷款的保证责任。在房屋权属转移并设立抵押权之后,业主享有标的物房屋的所有权,但房屋存在权利瑕疵,即银行享有抵押权,而开发商不再承担业主归还贷款的保证责任。由此,三方的合同目的和主要权利、义务是:

(1)开发商:合同目的和主要权利是取得业主支付的价款(包括银行的贷款),义务是转让商品房所有权给业主,并在设立抵押权之前承担业主归还贷款的保证责任,即在保证责任消灭前,开发商取得的价款(标的物)上负有权利瑕疵。

(2)业主:合同目的是取得商品房所有权,义务是支付房款(以担保贷款方式支付的价款)给开发商,同时承担按期归还贷款,将房屋抵押给银行、消除价款上权利瑕疵的义务。

(3)银行:合同目的和主要权利是获得贷款利息,收回贷款本金,在业主违反借款合同时有权要求解除借款合同、提前收回贷款,并由开发商承担保证责任,或以抵押房屋受偿的权利。义务是向开发商交付业主的借款,即商品房买卖合同的价款。

二、业主断供开发商所面临的法律风险

基于以上三方当事人的法律关系和权利义务,如果业主出现断供,开发商将面临以下法律风险:

1.银行直接要求开发商对业主的按揭还款义务承担阶段性连带保证责任。

在银行与业主、开发商签订的《个人购房借款/担保合同》中,一般会约定在业主取得房屋所有权证书并办理正式抵押登记手续以前,开发商作为保证人对业主在借款合同项下全部贷款本金、利息、罚息、复利、违约金、补偿金、贷款人实现债权的费用和借款人所有其他应付费用承担连带保证责任。

因此,一旦业主出现断供,在业主出现断供的情况下,银行会采取哪些措施实现其债权?一般有两种选择:

(1)直接从开发商的保证金中扣款实现债权;

(2)银行提起诉讼,要求借款人还款、开发商承担担保责任。

银行基于不良率考核及时间成本的考虑,一般都不会选择起诉业主要求支付按揭款,而是直接要求开发商代为还款(一般直接扣除保证金)。由于开发商承担的是连带保证责任,因此对于银行提出的还款要求很难抗辩,只能先行承担还款责任。虽然开发商在代为还款后有权向业主追偿,但业主一般是因为财务状况恶化丧失履行能力才会出现断供,因此业主主动向开发商还款的可能性很小,随着时间推移开发商代为还款的损失将越来越大。

2.如业主涉及其他债务纠纷,则开发商面临房屋被法院查封、拍卖用于偿还其他债权人的风险,开发商及银行对房屋拍卖价款不具备优先受偿权。

如上所述,业主基本是因为财务状况恶化丧失履行能力才会出现断供,在此情况下业主对外极有可能还涉及与其他债权人的债务纠纷。由于业主的断供行为属于违反《个人购房借款/担保合同》的违约行为,就《商品房买卖合同》而言,业主已经履行完毕支付全部购房款的义务,且房屋已办理预告登记手续。因此,如其他债权人对业主提起诉讼或者仲裁,根据《最高人民法院关于人民法院民事执行中查封、扣押、冻结财产的规定》及法院现有通行做法,房屋面临被法院查封以及后续被法院拍卖用于偿还其他债权人的风险。

如出现上述情况,银行对拍卖房屋是否具有优先受偿权呢?过去的法律规定以及司法实践多将预抵押登记作为一种物的担保,银行享有对预抵押房屋的优先受偿权。但物权法出台后,认为业主没有取得房屋所有权证书并办理正式抵押登记,银行对房屋还不享有法定的抵押权,依法对房屋拍卖价款也没有优先受偿的权利。因此,银行或开发商仅能以一般债权人的身份要求参与分配房屋的拍卖价款,且还需要持有要求业主返还开发商已代垫按揭款及其他损失的生效裁判文书才具备参与分配的资格,否则开发商无权参与分配。开发商即使参与了房屋拍卖价款的分配,分配取得的价款不仅无法弥补垫付的按揭款,同时开发商作为保证人还需要继续向银行承担偿还未结清按揭款的责任,开发商面临"钱房两失"的风险。

三、开发商如何应对业主断供的风险

针对上述情形,开发商如何应对呢?

1.通过合同约定,做好事前防范。

开发商可以在《商品房买卖合同》及补充协议中约定开发商的解除权及违约责任的分担。如在《商品房买卖合同》中约定:

就甲方(开发商)提供阶段性按揭贷款担保事宜,乙方承诺严格按照《借款合同》履行还款义务,确保不因逾期还款等原因导致甲方承担阶段担保责任,且为本合同及补充协议项下主要义务。双方就此明确如下:

(1)乙方未能按期向按揭银行偿还到期贷款本息,导致甲方承担担保责任的,乙方应在甲方向其送到告知函之日起3日内,将甲方代其向按揭银行偿还的全部款项(包括但不限于贷款本金、利息、罚息、赔偿金、按揭提起诉讼或者仲裁发生的按建设受理费、律师费等),及甲方因此遭受的全部损失(包括但不限于诉讼或者仲裁费用、律师费等损失)支付给甲方,同时,自甲方实际承担上述款项之日起至乙方实际承担上述款项之日止,乙方应按日向甲方支付相当于上述全部款项(包括代偿银行的全部款项及损失赔偿金)万分之五的违约金。

(2)无论任何原因,乙方逾期偿还银行到期贷款本息累计达二次以上(含两次)或者按揭银行终止(借款合同)或者按揭银行通知甲方承担担保责任的,甲方有权解除合同并要求乙方按照本补充协议的约定承担违约责任。

(3)如因乙方原因使该房屋被司法机关或者行政机关查封、预查封、扣押、冻结、划拨的,甲方有权选择解除合同,将该房屋收回另行出售,并要求乙方按照本补充协议约定承担违约责任。

2.在签订《商品房买卖合同》时或者在办理银行按揭贷款时,要求业主提前签署委托开发商代办房产证手续,符合办证条件后及时书面发函催促业主办理房产证,催促银行办理抵押登记手续,避免出现业主拖延办证及抵押手续而无法免除开发商的阶段性连带保证责任。

开发商承担连带保证责任的期限一般是在业主签订借款合同之日起至取得房屋所有权证书并办理正式抵押登记手续之日止。《个人购房借款/担保合同》一般也会约定业主办理取得产权证和他项权证(即房屋抵押给银行的抵押登记手续正式办理完毕,银行取得法定的抵押权和对房屋的优先受偿权)后,开发商的连带保证责任解除。

在签订商品房买卖合同时或者在办理银行按揭贷款时,应要求业主委托开发商代办房产证,避免出现业主拖延办证而无法解除开发商的阶段性连带保证责任。如签订商品房买卖合同时候未办理委托手续的,开发商在完成产权总登房屋具备产权办理条件后,尽快让业主办理产权证和他项权证,以解除阶段性连带保证责任。

业主或开发商在办好产权证后,要及时通知银行办理房屋抵押登记手续。现实中如果业主出现严重断供,银行处于自身风险考虑,有时会怠于办理抵押手续,这时开发商就要发函告知银行及业主,对已符合办理抵押登记手续及他项权证的条件下,如怠于履行办理义务,开发商就不承担连带保证责任。

3.业主出现断供后的应对措施。

(1)三方协商解决

与银行协商,说服银行尽量不要从开发商的保证金中扣款,让银行直接起诉业主并通过拍卖该房产而实现债权。

与业主协商,建议业主及时偿还借款或者解除商品房买卖合同,由开发商代为偿还银行借款。

(2)开发商起诉业主解除商品房买卖合同

如三方无法协商解决,要么银行基于借款合同起诉业主和开发商,要么开发商基于商品房买卖合同关系起诉业主要求解除合同。开发商起诉业主解除合同一般可以基于合同约定通知解除或要求解除,哪怕没有约定也具有法律依据。根据《最高人民法院关于审理商品房买卖合同纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第二十四条规定,"因商品房买卖合同被确认无效或者被撤销、解除,致使商品房担保贷款合同的目的无法实现,当事人请求解除商品房担保贷款合同的,应予支持。"最高人民法院民一庭韩延斌法官在《审理商品房买卖合同纠纷案件司法解释的理解与适用》中明确指出,"商品房担保贷款合同的订立是以商品房买卖合同有效成立为前提条件"。可以法律赋予开发商解除合同的权利。

如该房屋未被第三人预查封的情况下,银行从保证金中扣除部分款项,随后起诉业主解除借款合同并要求偿还本金及利息的,开发商应立即起诉业主向其追偿银行从保证金中扣除的款项并申请查封业主的房屋。

如该房屋已被第三人预查封且银行未从开发商保证金中扣款的情况下,与银行协商,由银行将扣款列入诉讼请求,起诉业主并通过拍卖业主的该房产而实现债权,并将扣款返还开发商。

如该房屋已被第三人预查封且银行直接从开发商保证金中扣除所有或者部分款项,开发商应直接起诉业主解除合同(能否得到法院支持,在当前的司法实践中存在争议。)收回房屋,另行出售。否则开发商被扣的款项仅为普通债权,须在享有优先受偿权的债权人之后受偿,亦可能无法追偿,造成开发商重大的损失。

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