China: 确认房屋买卖合同效力案件管辖问题浅析

Last Updated: 9 May 2019
Article by DeHeng Law Offices
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

前言:

司法实践中,管辖问题是影响争议解决进程时间的重要因素。不同时期规定不同,不同法院针对相同问题也常做出不同的裁决结果,给诉讼参与人造成极大困扰,也浪费了司法资源。本文对2015年2月4日《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国民事诉讼法>的解释》(以下简称"民诉法解释")实施后,"确认房屋买卖合同效力"案件的法院地域管辖进行了分析梳理。

确认房屋买卖合同效力案件,常见于合同一方或者合同之外的第三方因房屋买卖合同侵害其合法权益,而提起的合同效力确认之诉,包括确认合同有效、确认合同无效、请求撤销合同等。比如:债权人起诉债务人与他人恶意串通签订房屋买卖合同转移财产;夫妻一方起诉登记为产权人的另一方与他人签订的房屋买卖合同无效;借名买房关系中房屋实际所有人起诉名义所有人与他人签订的买卖合同无效;合同一方以对方欺诈胁迫、重大误解等请求撤销合同;合同一方以合同违法要求确认合同无效等。

本文对"地域管辖"按以下方法梳理分析:第一,是否专属管辖;第二,是否适用合同约定管辖;第三,一般地域管辖。

一、确认政策性房屋买卖合同效力案件由不动产所在地法院专属管辖

2012年修订后的《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》(以下简称"民诉法")第三十三条第(一)项规定,因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖。《民诉法解释》第二十八条规定,民事诉讼法第三十三条第一项规定的不动产纠纷是指因不动产的权利确认、分割、相邻关系等引起的物权纠纷。农村土地承包经营合同纠纷、房屋租赁合同纠纷、建设工程施工合同纠纷、政策性房屋买卖合同纠纷,按照不动产纠纷确定管辖。

根据《民诉法解释》第二十八条第二款规定"政策性房屋买卖合同纠纷"按照不动产纠纷确定管辖,所以如果确认房屋买卖合同效力纠纷案件中,涉及的房屋为政策性房屋,按照不动产纠纷确定为专属管辖,由房屋所在地法院管辖。

"政策性房屋"的定义在法律法规中并无明确的规定。有观点认为,按字面意思理解,所有不能自由买卖的房屋,交易受政策调整的房屋均为政策性房屋,所有实施调控、限购、限贷城市的房屋都是政策性房屋。按此观点,由于国务院层级也制定过针对不同房屋实施差别税收的政策,那么全国所有的房屋都属于政策性房屋了。为了准确理解"政策性房屋"的定义,笔者试图从相关司法解释及法院判决中"政策性"的语境来理解其意义。

《北京市高级人民法院关于审理房屋买卖合同纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的指导意见(试行)》第十六条规定,借名人违反相关政策、法规的规定,借名购买经济适用住房等政策性保障住房,并登记在他人名下,借名人主张确认房屋归其所有或者依据双方之间的约定要求登记人办理房屋所有权转移登记的,一般不予支持。该条表明:"经济适用房"属于政策性房屋。

《北京高院关于审理房屋买卖合同纠纷案件若干疑难问题的会议纪要》第十条中,提到《北京市高级人民法院关于审理房屋买卖合同纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的指导意见(试行)》第十六条规定中的政策性保障住房包括经济适用住房、两限房等保障中低收入家庭住房困难的房屋。

另外笔者还从相关判决中寻求"政策性房屋"的范畴。北京市丰台区人民法院(2015)丰民初字第22090号《民事裁定书》认定"按经济适用住房管理的房屋属政策性房屋"。北京市第三中级人民法院(2016)京03民辖终1099号《民事裁定书》认定"农村房屋属于政策性房屋"。北京市通州区人民法院(2016)京0112民初32989号《民事裁定书》认定"小产权房属政策性房屋"。北京市第二中级人民法院(2015)二中民终字第11500号《民事裁定书》认定"普通商品房屋确认房屋买卖合同无效的纠纷,属于合同纠纷,但不属于法律规定的按不动产确定管辖的合同纠纷案件,不适用不动产专属管辖的规定"。

从上述司法解释及判例:我们可以大致得出以下两个结论:

第一、普通商品房不属于政策性房屋。

第二、经济适用房、两限房、按经济适用房管理的住房、农村房屋、小产权房属于政策性房屋。

另外,我们可以大胆的推断:房改房、自住商品房、共有产权房等房屋均属于政策性房屋,但此类房屋中早期按政策过了禁售期、补交土地出让金或者综合地价款允许上市后,是否还属于政策性房屋,还有待最高人民法院出台司法解释进一步明确或者通过相关判例来考证了。

二、普通商品房买卖合同确认效力纠纷,按照合同纠纷确定管辖

关于普通商品房的确认房屋买卖合同效力纠纷,性质上属于合同纠纷,归于债权纠纷范畴,不属于物权纠纷,因此不能依据《民诉法解释》第二十八条第一款认定为不动产所在地专属管辖,只能按合同纠纷确定管辖。

1.合同当事人一方起诉,有约定管辖,适用约定管辖。

有效的合同约定管辖:《民诉法》第三十四条规定,合同或者其他财产权益纠纷的当事人可以书面协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地等与争议有实际联系的地点的人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法级别管辖与专属管辖的规定。

另外,如果当事人在合同中约定了仲裁条款或事后达成仲裁协议,则优先适用仲裁规则。

2.合同当事人一方起诉,且没有约定管辖,适用一般合同纠纷管辖,由被告住所地或者合同履行地法院管辖。

《民诉法》第二十三条因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管辖。《民诉法解释》第十八条规定,合同约定履行地点的,以约定的履行地点为合同履行地。合同对履行地点没有约定或者约定不明确,争议标的为给付货币的,接收货币一方所在地为合同履行地;交付不动产的,不动产所在地为合同履行地;其他标的,履行义务一方所在地为合同履行地。即时结清的合同,交易行为地为合同履行地。合同没有实际履行,当事人双方住所地都不在合同约定的履行地的,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

有人提出,房屋买卖合同中,购买房屋的一方住所地不就是房屋所在地吗?笔者认为购买未超过一年的,肯定会被排除,实践中购买一年以上的房屋,可以尝试用房屋产权证明作为居住地依据证明,但也不排除法院要求另外提供居住证明等其他证据来印证。

3.合同当事人之外的第三人起诉,一般由被告住所地法院管辖。

《民诉法》第二十八条规定,因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

《合同法》第七十四条规定,因债务人放弃其到期债权或者无偿转让财产,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产,对债权人造成损害,并且受让人知道该情形的,债权人也可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。《合同法解释一》第二十三条规定,债权人依照合同法第七十四条的规定提起撤销权诉讼的,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。

三、总结

1.政策性房屋买卖合同效力确认纠纷,适用不动产所在地确定专属管辖,由房屋所在地法院管辖。政策性房屋包括:经济适用房、两限房、按经济适用房管理的住房、农村房屋、小产权房、房改房、自住商品房、共有产权房等。

2.合同当事人一方提起的普通商品房买卖合同效力确认纠纷,合同约定管辖的,优先适用约定管辖。

3.合同当事人一方提起的普通商品房买卖合同效力确认纠纷,合同没有约定管辖的,按照一般合同管辖原则确定,由被告住所地或者合同履行地管辖。

4.合同当事人之外的第三人起诉,一般由被告住所地法院管辖。

四、建议

现行管辖规则太过复杂,容易引发分岐,导致管辖异议多发,浪费当事人精力及司法资源。建议进行简化,回归民诉法本意,所有不动产纠纷均由不动产所在地专属管辖。比如涉及普通商品房的确认房屋买卖合同效力案件,也直接规定按照不动产所在地确定为专属管辖。

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