China: 医药化工企业污染物处理的行为控制与风险防范

Last Updated: 28 March 2019
Article by Fang Long and Wang Shuo
Most Read Contributor in China, April 2019

2018年12月26日,"兰州警方破获全省首例废铅酸蓄电池污染环境案 [1]",案涉藏匿、拆解废铅酸蓄电池等非法处置污染物的行为;

2018年12月12日,"天津首例污染环境类刑附民公益诉讼案宣判 [2]",案涉未依法取得危险废物经营许可证的情况下非法从事收集、处置危险废物的经营行为,以及明知他人无危险废物经营许可证而向其提供危险废物,严重污染环境的行为;

2018年12月11日,安徽省芜湖中院就"10.12跨省污染长江环境案"二审公开宣判,案涉某企业在长江流域某段非法倾倒危险废物及有毒、有害固体废物的行为......

2018年10月26日,新修订的 《中华人民共和国大气污染防治法》和《中华人民共和国环境保护税法》颁布并生效,这也意味着自2014年首次修订 《中华人民共和国环境保护法》(《环保法》)开始的中国环境保护法律制度的修缮已臻于完备;且严格实施于当下治理环境污染的攻坚战略阶段,各区域、层级的政府部门及司法机关的环境保护执法与司法工作的开展也更加活跃而规范,从篇首列举的司法案例中可见一斑。

另一方面,在为医药、化工、生物科技等类型的公司提供法律服务的过程中,我们发现此类公司也越加关注自身的行为是否符合法律关于环境保护的要求。借一企业因跨省处置污染物而涉嫌污染环境罪进行辩护的契机,我们梳理了法律、法规等关于企业污染物处置的规定,以期为企业对自身污染物处置行为进行合法性控制和违法犯罪风险防范提供一些建议。

一、《刑法》与司法解释关于"污染环境罪"的基本规定与价值趋向

在环境污染刑事案件中,犯罪行为多种多样,法院将根据《刑法》第338条关于污染环境罪的罪状描述,以及最高人民法院、最高人民检察院于2016年出台的《关于办理环境污染刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》 ("《环境污染刑事案件司法解释》")对"严重污染环境"、"有毒物质"等要素作出的细化规定,对不同行业,不同主体的污染环境行为的入罪与处罚进行裁判。

根据"无讼网"的查询,2011年至2018年与"污染环境罪"有关的生效裁判文书数据显示如下:


注:受法院判决、文书上网进度的影响,上图中2018年文书数量尚不完备,有待参考

可见,"污染环境罪"案件的数量呈明显的上升趋势。以"污染环境罪"为代表的环境污染刑事案件的增多,一方面,体现了立法与司法加强了对环境违法犯罪行为的惩治力度;另一方面,也反映出此类犯罪入罪门槛的降低,《刑法修正案(八)》对污染环境罪的修改深刻体现了这一趋势:

修订前 刑法修正案(八)》修订后
违反国家规定,向土地、水体、大气排放、倾倒或者处置有放射性的废物、含传染病病原体的废物、有毒物质或者其他危险废物,造成重大环境污染事故,致使公私财产遭受重大损失或者人身伤亡的严重后果的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。 违反国家规定,排放、倾倒或者处置有放射性的废物、含传染病病原体的废物、有毒物质或者其他有害物质,严重污染环境的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;后果特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
注:有放射性的废物、含传染病病原体的废物、有毒物质或者其他有害物质,统称"污染物"

《刑法》条文的修订,增加了污染物的范围,删除了对处理污染物所利用的环境媒介的限定,降低了犯罪构成的门槛;同时,对危害结果的修改,体现了我国环境保护法律价值的理论从纯粹的保护人类的法益论向生态学的法益论的演变 [3]。相应地,污染环境罪从结果犯演变为兼具行为犯与结果犯属性的犯罪;《环境污染刑事案件司法解释》在规定"严重污染环境"的十八种情形时对此予以充分体现。

现实中,无论企业还是个人,因不同程度地排放、倾倒、处置过污染物,在环境保护面前,都头顶悬着达摩克利斯之剑。个人在生活中产生污染废物的行为在很大程度上被法律予以豁免,但是,医药、化工等企业却恰恰因污染物在废弃前可能是其生产、经营的原料和产品,而承担着触犯环境污染刑事犯罪的高度风险。在司法实践趋向认定环境污染犯罪为混合罪过,即故意与过失均可能构成犯罪 [4]的情况下,医药、化工等类似企业应当对污染物处置行为进行全面、深入的合法性控制,以规范处理行为,降低过失犯罪风险,杜绝故意犯罪。

二、企业对污染物处理行为进行控制并规避犯罪风险的方案

第一步:明确本企业原材料、产品的种类,判断废弃后是否属于"污染物"

根据《刑法》第三百三十八条,污染物包括(1)有放射性的废物、(2)含传染病病原体的废物、(3)有毒物质,及(4)其他有害物质。关于该4类物质的认定,《中华人民共和国放射性污染防治法》、《中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》等法律、行政法规、司法解释等分别进行了细化和明确,具体如下:

种类 释义 自查依据
(简写)
A有放射性的废物 放射性废物系含有放射性核素或者被放射性核素污染,其浓度或者比活度大于国家确定的清洁解控水平,预期不再使用的废弃物。 《放射性污染防治法》、《放射性废物安全管理条例》
B含传染病病原体的废物 含传染病病原体的废物包括医疗废物中病原体的培养基、标本和菌种、毒种保存液等高危险废物。 《医疗废物管理条例》、《医疗卫生机构医疗废物管理办法》、《国家危险废物名录》
C有毒物质 C1危险废物:
指列入国家危险废物名录或者根据国家规定的危险废物鉴别标准和鉴别方法认定的具有危险特性的固体废物;
固体废物是指在生产、生活和其他活动中产生的丧失原有利用价值或者虽未丧失利用价值但被抛弃或者放弃的固态、半固态和置于容器中的气态的物品、物质以及法律、行政法规规定纳入固体废物管理的物品、物质。

具备下列特性的固体废物(包括液体废物)纳入危险废物范围:
(1)具有腐蚀性(Corrosivity, C)、毒性(Toxicity,T)、易燃性(Ignitability,I)、反应性(Reactivity,R)或者感染性(Infectivity,In)等一种或者几种危险特性的;(具体参照《国家危险废物名录》)
(2)列入《危险化学品目录》的化学品废弃物;
(3)不排除具有危险特性,可能对环境或者人体健康造成有 害影响,需要按照危险废物进行管理的。
《固体废物污染环境防治法》、《环境污染刑事案件司法解释》、《国家危险废物名录》、《医疗废物管理条例》、《医疗卫生机构医疗废物管理办法》、"Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal"、《危险化学品目录》
C2持久性有机污染物:
艾氏剂、氯丹、杀白蚁剂、狄氏剂、异狄氏剂、七氯、六氯代苯、灭蚁灵、毒杀芬、多氯联苯、滴滴涕、三氯杀螨醇中间体、六溴环十二烷等。
"Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants"
C3含重金属的污染物:
重金属包括:铜、铅、锌、锡、镍、钴、锑、汞、镉、铋等
——
C4其他具有毒性,可能污染环境的物质 ——
D其他有害物质 —— ——

因社会发展的日新月异,新生事物层出不穷,为尽可能涵盖法律规制的污染物的种类,法律对污染物的认定进行了兜底性规定。虽然企业的部分原材料、产品或其废弃物没有直接出现在前述自查依据中,或无法直接根据自查依据的文字描述进行判断,但是仍有可能属于"其他具有毒性,可能污染环境的物质"而被认定为有毒物质,或被认定为"其他有害物质"。

第二步:梳理本企业对原材料、产品的废弃物的处理方式,判断是否符合"国家规定"

无论企业的原材料、产品的废弃物是否属于污染物,只要企业能够按照国家规定进行废弃物/污染物的处理,则能够在很大程度上降低触犯环境污染刑事犯罪的风险。企业应当根据第一步的结果,在下表中查询关于该类废弃物/污染物处理方式的一般国家规定,并判断自身的处理方式是否与之相符。

种类 国家规定(包含法律、行政法规、部门规章及政策)
广义污染物 一、命令性规范
1.排放污染物的企业和其他生产经营者,应当防治在生产建设或者其他活动z中产生的废气、废水、废渣、医疗废物、粉尘、恶臭气体、放射性物质以及噪声、振动、光辐射、电磁辐射等对环境的污染和危害;
2.重点排污企业应当按照国家有关规定和监测规范安装使用监测设备,保证监测设备正常运行,保存原始监测记录;
3.排放污染物的企业和其他生产经营者,应当按照国家有关规定缴纳排污费;
4.企业单位应当执行国家和地方污染物排放标准,同时,应遵守分解落实到本单位的重点污染物排放总量控制指标。
二、禁止性规范
1.严禁通过暗管、渗井、渗坑、灌注或者篡改、伪造监测数据,或者不正常运行防治污染设施等逃避监管的方式违法排放污染物;
2.实行排污许可管理的单位和其他生产经营者应当按照排污许可证的要求排放污染物;未取得排污许可证的,不得排放污染物;
3.不得生产、使用国家明令禁止生产、使用的农药。
参照:《环保法》
有放射性的废物 一、命令性规范
(1)向环境排放放射性废气、废液,必须符合国家放射性污染防治标准;
(2)向环境排放放射性废气、废液(注:达到国家放射性污染防治标准的废气、废液,以下同),应当向环评审批部门申请放射性核素排放量,并定期报告排放计量结果;
(3)产生放射性废液的企业,必须按照国家放射性污染防治标准的要求,对不得向环境排放的放射性废液进行处理或者贮存;
(4)产生放射性废液的企业,向环境排放放射性废液,必须采用符合环保部门规定的排放方式;
(5)低、中水平放射性固体废物在符合国家规定的区域实行近地表处置;高水平放射性固体废物实行集中的深地质处置;α放射性固体废物依照前述规定处置;
(6)按照放射性污染防治的要求建造尾矿库,贮存、处置铀(钍)矿和伴生放射性矿的尾矿;
(7)产生放射性固体废物的企业,应当按照环保部门的规定,对其产生的放射性固体废物进行处理后,送交放射性固体废物处置单位处置,并承担处置费用。
二、禁止性规范
1.禁止利用渗井、渗坑、天然裂隙、溶洞或者国家禁止的其他方式排放放射性废液;
2.禁止在内河水域和海洋上处置放射性固体废物;
3.禁止将放射性废物和被放射性污染的物品输入中国境内或者经中国境内转移(涉及"非法处置进口的固体废物罪")
4.禁止将放射性固体废物提供或者委托给无许可证的单位贮存和处置。
参照:《放射性污染防治法》、《放射性废物安全管理条例》
含传染病病原体的废物 命令性规范
1.医疗废物中病原体的培养基、标本和菌种、毒种保存液等高危险废物,在交医疗废物集中处置单位(具备县级以上环保部门发放的经营许可证)处置前应当就地消毒;
2.医疗废物中病原体的培养基、标本和菌种、毒种保存液等高危险废物,应当首先在产生地点进行压力蒸汽灭菌或者化学消毒处理,然后按感染性废物收集处理;
3.医疗废物的贮存、处置设施,应当远离居(村)民居住区、水源保护区和交通干道,与工厂、企业等工作场所有适当的安全防护距离,并符合国务院环保部门的规定。
参照:《医疗废物管理条例》、《医疗卫生机构医疗废物管理办法》
有毒物质 一、固体废物之"危险废物"

1. 命令性规范
(1)产生危险废物的单位,必须按照国家有关规定处置危险废物,不得擅自倾倒、堆放;
(3)以填埋方式处置危险废物不符合国务院环保部门规定的,应当缴纳危险废物排污费;
(4)转移危险废物的,必须按照国家有关规定填写危险废物转移联单。跨省、自治区、直辖市转移危险废物的,应当向危险废物移出地省、自治区、直辖市人民政府环保部门申请;
(5)运输危险废物,必须采取防止污染环境的措施,并遵守国家有关危险货物运输管理的规定;
(6)收集、贮存、运输、处置危险废物的场所、设施、设备和容器、包装物及其他物品转作他用时,必须经过消除污染的处理;
(7)企业对暂时不利用或者不能利用的工业固体废物,必须按照环保部门的规定建设贮存设施、场所,安全分类存放,或者采取无害化处置措施。

2.禁止性规范
(1)禁止将危险废物提供或者委托给无经营许可证的单位从事收集、贮存、利用、处置的经营活动;
(2)禁止混合收集、贮存、运输、处置性质不相容而未经安全性处置的危险废物;
(3)收集、贮存、运输、利用、处置固体废物的企业和个人,不得擅自倾倒、堆放、丢弃、遗撒固体废物;
(4)禁止任何企业或者个人向江河、湖泊、运河、渠道、水库及其最高水位线以下的滩地和岸坡等法律、法规规定禁止倾倒、堆放废弃物的地点倾倒、堆放固体废物;
(5)在国务院和国务院有关主管部门及省、自治区、直辖市人民政府划定的自然保护区、风景名胜区、饮用水水源保护区、基本农田保护区和其他需要特别保护的区域内,禁止建设工业固体废物集中贮存、处置的设施、场所和生活垃圾填埋场;
(6)禁止中国境外的固体废物进境倾倒、堆放、处置(涉及"非法处置进口的固体废物罪");
(7)禁止进口不能用作原料或者不能以无害化方式利用的固体废物。
二、危险废物之"医疗废物"
医疗废物,是指医疗卫生机构在医疗、预防、保健以及其他相关活动中产生的具有直接或者间接感染性、毒性以及其他危害性的废物。

3. 命令性规范
(1)医疗卫生机构应当根据就近集中处置的原则,及时将医疗废物交由医疗废物集中处置单位处置;
(2)医疗卫生机构产生的污水、传染病病人或者疑似传染病病人的排泄物,应当按照国家规定严格消毒;达到国家规定的排放标准后,方可排入污水处理系统(传染病病人或者疑似传染病病人产生的生活垃圾,按照医疗废物进行管理和处置);
(3)不具备集中处置医疗废物条件的农村,医疗卫生机构应当按照县级人民政府卫生行政主管部门、环境保护行政主管部门的要求,自行就地处置其产生的医疗废物。自行处置医疗废物的,应当符合下列基本要求:
a使用后的一次性医疗器具和容易致人损伤的医疗废物,应当消毒并作毁形处理;
b能够焚烧的,应当及时焚烧;不能焚烧的,消毒后集中填埋。

4. 禁止性规范
(1)禁止任何单位和个人转让、买卖医疗废物;
(2)禁止在运送过程中丢弃医疗废物;禁止在非贮存地点倾倒、堆放医疗废物或者将医疗废物混入其他废物和生活垃圾;
(3)禁止邮寄医疗废物;禁止通过铁路、航空运输医疗废物;禁止将医疗废物与旅客在同一运输工具上载运;
(4)禁止在饮用水源保护区的水体上运输医疗废物。
三、家庭源危险废物
豁免,全过程不按危险废物处理。
四、危险化学品废弃物
具有毒害、腐蚀、爆炸、燃烧、助燃等性质,对人体、设施、环境具有危害的剧毒化学品和其他化学品的废弃物,参照前述危险废物处理方式的国家规定。

企业进行污染物的处理必须符合国家规定。各企业应当在"国家规定"的基础上,根据本行业的特点,向所在地环保部门或专业机构咨询更为具体的污染物处理方式。

第三步:判断本企业的废弃物处理方式是否属于直接认定为"严重污染环境"的情形

在第二步中,企业可以初步判断污染物的处理方式是否符合国家规定;在本步骤中,企业则可以通过与《环境污染刑事案件司法解释》规定的"严重污染环境"的行为标准进行对照,并在予以整改,杜绝本企业废弃物处理行为的犯罪可能性。

《环境污染刑事案件司法解释》规定了8种通过具有严重危害性的行为而直接认定"严重污染环境"的情形,具体如下:

类型 主体与地点 动作 物质 方式与程度
1 地点:饮用水水源一级保护区、自然保护区核心区 排放、倾倒、处置 有放射性的废物、含传染病病原体的废物、有毒物质的
2 非法排放、倾倒、处置 危险废物 三吨以上
3 排放、倾倒、处置 含铅、汞、镉、铬、砷、铊、锑的污染物 超过国家或者地方污染物排放标准三倍以上
4 含镍、铜、锌、银、钒、锰、钴的污染物 超过国家或者地方污染物排放标准十倍以上的
5 有放射性的废物、含传染病病原体的废物、有毒物质的 通过暗管、渗井、渗坑、裂隙、溶洞、灌注等逃避监管的方式
6 二年内曾因违反国家规定,受过两次以上行政处罚,又实施前列行为的
7 主体:重点排污单位 排放 氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物等污染物 篡改、伪造自动监测数据或者干扰自动监测设施
8 违法减少防治污染设施运行支出一百万元以上

通过前述方案,企业能够基本判断本企业的污染物物处理方式是否合法,是否潜藏犯罪风险,并根据自查结果采取相应的整改措施。

同时,在合法合规的污染物处理过程中,企业也应当避免因为过失而产生危害后果,从而面临定罪处罚,如:(1)致使公私财产损失三十万元以上;(2)致使乡镇以上集中式饮用水水源取水中断十二小时以上;(3)致使基本农田、防护林地、特种用途林地五亩以上,其他农用地十亩以上,其他土地二十亩以上基本功能丧失或者遭受永久性破坏的;(4)致使森林或者其他林木死亡五十立方米以上,或者幼树死亡二千五百株以上;(5)致使疏散、转移群众五千人以上;(6)致使三十人以上中毒的;(7)致使三人以上轻伤、轻度残疾或者器官组织损伤导致一般功能障碍的;(8)致使一人以上重伤、中度残疾或者器官组织损伤导致严重功能障碍的,等。

我们总结建议企业控制自身的污染物处理行为方式,是从起点上要求做到规制、防范;在避免触犯环境污染违法、刑事犯罪这一层面,医药、化工等企业应更严格遵循《环保法》和相关行政法规、部门规章的规定,在企业生产、运营过程中,除了对建设项目进行环境影响评价、对污染防治设施的建设做到"三同时"、申领排污许可、缴纳排污费用等之外,还应当将环境保护纳入日常经营管理内容中,确定治理环境污染行为的责任目标、责任人和制度管理、审批流程及奖惩等来督促、落实。从现实中污染环境相关案件屡屡发生已呈快速上升的趋势表明,正面规范生产经营行为,防范污染环境违法、犯罪风险,加大环境保护,进行生态文明建设已迫在眉睫。

(*李苹律师对本文亦有贡献。李苹,曾任职人民法院刑庭、民三庭(房地产庭)法官,于广州市司法学校执教刑法、经济法。)

文中注释

[1]《每日甘肃网》2018年12月25日。

[2]《法制日报》2018年12月12日,第八版。

[3]张明楷:《污染环境罪的争议问题》,载《法学评论》2018年第2期。

[4]喻海松:《污染环境罪若干争议问题之厘清》,载《法律应用》2017年23期。

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