Cayman Islands: The Private Equity Review – Part 1: Fundraising

Last Updated: 21 May 2018
Article by Nicolas Butcher and Iain McMurdo

Most Read Contributor in Cayman Islands, November 2018


The Cayman Islands (Cayman) are home to a well-established and ever-growing domicile for private equity funds. This can be seen in the statistics issued by the Cayman Islands Registrar of Partnerships. While a Cayman private equity fund can be established as a company, or indeed a trust, the overwhelming majority of Cayman private equity funds are set up as partnerships to mirror the preferred domestic vehicle of choice, in particular, by US managers and sponsors. Specifically, for reasons that are set out later, private equity funds are typically established as exempted limited partnerships (ELPs) in Cayman.2 At the end of 2017, there was a total of 22,346 ELPs registered in Cayman. This is more than triple the 2006 number of 6,468. The years since the 2008 financial crisis have seen impressive numbers of annual partnership registrations. In 2017 the figure stood at 3,872 compared with 3,356 in 2016, 3,377 in 2015, 2,893 in 2014, 2,368 in 2013, 2,037 in 2012, 1,897 in 2011 and 1,543 in 2010.

The reason Cayman has such a well-developed market for private equity funds is a result of its ability to complement onshore fund structures, specifically Delaware partnerships. While founded on Cayman common law principles, which in turn are derived from English law, the Cayman Islands Exempted Limited Partnership Law (first enacted in 1991) was drafted to provide symmetry with the corresponding Delaware statute. It has subsequently been amended, but always with a view to dovetailing with the US market. This policy was, and is, simple in design: it was intended, within the confines of Cayman law, to enable a manager's offshore fund to operate and be governed consistently with its domestic offering. Add to this the fact that while English law is technically not binding on a Cayman court, it is persuasive to it; the Cayman legal environment is at once both familiar and robust. Following a detailed consultation, the law received a comprehensive review and overhaul in 2014 resulting in a new statute, the Exempted Limited Partnership Law 2014 (the ELP Law). The ELP Law did not make fundamental alterations to the nature, formation or operation of ELPs, but was intended to promote freedom of contract and simplify transactions undertaken by ELPs.

The statute is not, of course, the only reason for Cayman's success. The country provides a tax-neutral environment for fundraising, as under current Cayman law, provided its business is undertaken outside Cayman, no taxes or duties, either directly or by way of withholding, will be levied in Cayman on the trading activities or results of a Cayman-domiciled private equity fund. The combination of practical laws and low fiscal costs has secured the country's status as a popular and flexible domicile.

This has led to an interesting characteristic of the Cayman funds market: the vast majority of Cayman private equity funds are established by managers who are not themselves resident in the jurisdiction. The Cayman market facilitates the trading activities of the onshore funds industry, and in this sense the trends we see in Cayman are very much a coefficient of the trends experienced or developed in the United States, Europe, Asia and other major markets. The flexibility of Cayman law allows the manager or sponsor to replicate or accommodate deal terms driven by onshore factors and requirements.

If Cayman does not make the market trends, it certainly mirrors them. The lead-in time for deals appears to be currently increasing and, in some cases, lasts for many months. Increased investor expectation for transparency is reflected in a higher prevalence of side letters along with requests for valid and binding legal opinions – previously it was unusual to issue an enforceability opinion with respect to a side letter; now 20 or 30 opinions might be issued on a single closing.

Successful managers are still able to raise significant funds using Cayman structures. Even allowing for the fact that not every Cayman ELP is formed to serve as the investment vehicle for a private equity fund, transactions in the jurisdiction in 2017 remained robust, spanning a wide range of investment strategies and geographic focus.


Unlike open-ended mutual funds, closed-ended Cayman private equity funds are typically not required to register with the Cayman financial regulator, the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (CIMA). (By closed-ended, we mean that investors are not entitled to voluntarily purchase or redeem their equity interests prior to the termination of the fund.) This distinction is created by the Mutual Funds Law (2015 Revision), which only requires registration where investors can withdraw at their own option. As it is a common characteristic of a private equity fund to lock up capital for the life of the fund, such funds are closed-ended for the purposes of the law. As such, the legal environment for the fundraising and ongoing investment activities of a Cayman ELP private equity fund is dictated by the contractual relationship established by, and the disclosures set out in, the offering memorandum, subscription agreement and any other ancillary agreement (most notably side letters), and the ELP Law.

As already noted, the usual legal form of a Cayman private equity fund is an ELP formed under the ELP Law. While a private equity fund can be, and sometimes is, structured as a company (including since the introduction of a new law in 2016, a limited liability company) or trust, the ELP model has two advantages: it allows US managers in particular to use the same vehicle as they do for their domestic offering while preserving freedom of contract through the limited partnership agreement (LPA), and at the same time avoiding the constraints of the maintenance of capital doctrine that applies to a Cayman company.

Maintenance of capital is the price of limited liability for a company. In general terms, it means that the issued capital of a company cannot be reduced or simply returned to investors. The original intention under English law was to enable a concerned investor to carry out a due diligence exercise, based on the enquiry of the company or inspection of public records, to ascertain the capitalisation of a company. That investor could then form its own view as to whether to invest based on the strength of the covenant implied by the size of the company's share capital. The argument followed that this was an important creditor protection as, given limited liability and separate legal personality, a creditor could in the usual course of events only claim against the company, not its shareholders or directors. It therefore followed that the capital needed to be preserved or maintained so that it would be available to satisfy claims. Accordingly, rules, both statutory and common law, grew up to maintain capital, and these are still reflected in modern Cayman company law. For example, a Cayman company cannot reduce its share capital without a court order, special rules apply to the purchase or redemption of its own shares and pure capital (i.e., capital representing the par, or nominal, value of a company's shares) cannot ordinarily be distributed to shareholders.3

None of these requirements apply to an ELP, as there is no equivalent of the corporate maintenance of capital doctrine under Cayman partnership law. This is because the general partner (GP) of an ELP has unlimited liability for all the debts and obligations of the partnership to the extent that its assets are inadequate.4 Conversely, the limited partners (LPs), as the name implies, are not so liable (subject to two important exceptions noted below).5 This gives investors – the LPs in a Cayman private equity fund formed as an ELP – the best of both worlds: limited liability, but with an almost unfettered ability to receive a return of capital in any situation subject only to the terms of the LPA underpinning the ELP.

An ELP is in fact a collection of contractual rights and obligations expressed through the terms of the LPA, which operates under agency principles through the GP and which has a limited liability wrapper for its LPs courtesy of the ELP Law. As the GP both acts for the ELP and has unlimited liability, there are qualifying criteria: at least one GP must be a Cayman company, another Cayman ELP or a natural person resident in Cayman. It can also be an overseas company, including for these purposes a Delaware LLC, which registers in Cayman as a foreign company.6 This is short of a migration of the foreign company to Cayman and there is no reincorporation in Cayman, but a registered office is required along with submission of an annual return and, as discussed later, it can then fall subject to certain Cayman laws. Since the overhaul of the ELP Law in 2014, overseas partnerships can also register in Cayman in order to qualify as the GP of an ELP. There appears to be no overall preference for choice of qualification, although, in the majority of cases, either a Cayman company or a foreign-registered company will be used.7

There are no qualifying criteria for LPs; however, an LP is subject to certain statutory restrictions, again being the price for limited liability. Specifically, an LP is passive. In fact, it is prohibited under the ELP Law from taking part in the conduct of the business of the ELP, and the law requires that all contracts, agreements and the like are entered into by the GP on behalf of the ELP.8

This leads on to the first of the exceptions to limited liability noted above: in summary, an LP who takes part in the conduct of the business of the ELP can lose limited liability with respect to a third party who deals with that ELP and who reasonably believes such LP to be a GP.9 However, all is not lost for an LP who wants to exert internal control on the activities of the partnership, as the ELP Law sets out a series of 'safe harbours', which are deemed not to amount to taking part in the conduct of the business. Probably the most helpful of these is as follows:

[...] consulting with and advising a general partner or consenting or withholding consent to any action proposed, in the manner contemplated by the partnership agreement, with respect to the business of the exempted limited partnership.

This is because this is usually sufficient to enable an LP to participate in an advisory committee of the partnership without concern that it could lose limited liability. This is a potential area for tension for an LP who wants to exert control over a GP, and therefore by extension the ELP itself. We advise that the golden rule for an 'active passive' LP is first, only to participate internally within the partnership, and dealing only with other partners and never with third parties; and second, to have those internal controls expressly documented in the LPA so as far as possible to come within the letter of the safe harbour set out above.

The second exemption to limited liability is clawback on insolvency. If an LP receives a capital – not a profit – distribution and the ELP is insolvent on a cash-flow test at the time the payment is made and the LP has actual knowledge of the insolvency, then that LP can become liable to return the distribution together with interest.10

In short, to complete the description of the legal form of an ELP, the partnership does not have separate legal personality: it contracts through the GP, and property vested into the partnership or expressed to be held in its own name is in fact held by the GP. Legal actions would be initiated by the GP on behalf of the partnership. Finally, subject to the terms of the LPA, an ELP can have perpetual succession.

In terms of the fundraising itself, Cayman has a disclosure-based legal system; there are no prescribed rules for the content of an offering memorandum for a closed-ended private equity fund. However, whatever is or is not said may potentially be actionable. In addition to a contractual claim under the contracts constituted by the offering memorandum, the subscription agreement and any ancillary agreement (such as a side letter), liability could also arise under principles of negligent or fraudulent misrepresentation, while the Contracts Law (1996 Revision) could apply with respect to pre-contractual misrepresentation. To complete the line-up of civil claims, an action for deceit could also arise under tort laws. Finally, in the case of criminal deception, the Penal Code (2017 Revision) could apply.11

All of this means that the role of adequate disclosure to mitigate the liability of the ELP (along with possibly its GP and promoters), as well as to explain the investment terms, strategy and risk factors, is crucial. If an investor (i.e., an LP in the context of an ELP) can show reliance on a disclosure in the offering memorandum and breach of that disclosure that has resulted in damage, then a claim could ensue. This applies equally to the adequacy of risk factors, for example, as it does to more readily apparent contractual terms such as a statement as to the quantum of fees to be charged by the GP or sponsor.

Specific Cayman disclosures that might be expected, in addition to the investment narrative, terms and risk factors, include the legal form (and especially that the fund, if an ELP, does not have separate legal personality) and the exceptions to limited liability described above. Also typically included would be a statement with respect to tax treatment, transmission of investor information under regulatory laws (see Section III, infra) and a statement that the ELP is only authorised to carry on business outside the Cayman Islands. This latter point is significant to the parameters for the solicitation of investors in Cayman.

While a Cayman company is not allowed, under the Companies Law, to offer its securities for sale to the public unless those securities are listed on the Cayman Islands Stock Exchange,12 there is no equivalent for an ELP; however, as shall be seen, an ELP is expressly prohibited from transacting business with the public in the Cayman Islands. In fact, this is what 'exempted' in the legal description of an ELP signifies, as only an exempted limited partnership is entitled to apply for the tax exemption certificate described in Section III, infra.13

Although there are no equivalents to securities registration statements or investment promotions in Cayman, the legal requirement that the business of an exempted company or partnership must be undertaken outside Cayman means that it cannot generally deal with the public in Cayman (unless, in the case of a company, its securities are first listed on the local exchange). In practice, this means that the investors in a Cayman private equity fund will either be resident overseas or will be other Cayman-exempted entities. One Cayman-exempted vehicle can deal with another, as ultimately their respective businesses are carried out outside rather than within Cayman. As the vast majority of Cayman funds are established with exempted status, the restriction does not usually create an issue in practice; however, occasionally a fund will want to take in a Cayman-resident, non-exempt investor. Whether it can lawfully do so will depend on whether the fund has made an offer to the public in Cayman such that it is carrying out business with the public in Cayman.14

While specific advice must be sought prior to making an offer in the Cayman Islands, we can extract the following general principles:

  1. marketing materials can be sent to a limited number of pre-selected investors;
  2. marketing visits should be made on a one-off basis and should be specific to a limited number of pre-selected investors (unless made on a reverse-enquiry basis);
  3. local immigration and licensing requirements may apply;
  4. the fund can be marketed via a website or other electronic means by the sponsor to the extent that the website is not provided through an internet or electronic service provider (e.g., from a server) in the Cayman Islands;
  5. unsolicited calls from investors can be responded to, but the making of calls by the sponsor could trigger the public business test;
  6. there are no express requirements for the content of marketing materials and, subject to the public offer prohibition, no prescribed minimum or maximum number of offerees; and
  7. it is advisable that the following jurisdiction-specific statement is included in any offering memorandum or equivalent – 'No offer or invitation to subscribe for [partnership interests] can be made or is made hereby to the public in the Cayman Islands.'

As previously noted, in the vast majority of cases the sponsor or manager of a Cayman private equity fund will be based onshore, and the fiduciary or other obligations of that sponsor or manager may in part be governed by laws of its own jurisdiction and also the laws of the jurisdiction in which the offer is made; however, the liability, if any, of the sponsor or manager will also be governed by the nature of the contractual arrangements it has with the fund, the scope of its services and obligations, and the extent of any limitation of liability and indemnification. Common carve-outs for exculpation provisions in the context of a Cayman investment fund are fraud, wilful default and gross negligence. It is worth noting that Cayman does not have a settled definition of gross negligence, and it is therefore usual to see either an express definition or an import of a standard by reference to other laws, usually, in the context of the US market, those of Delaware or New York.

No discussion of fiduciary duties and liability would be complete without referencing the standard for the GP itself. The ELP Law contains a statutory standard that cannot be contracted out of: the GP is required to act at all times in good faith and, subject to the LPA, in the interests of the partnership.15 There is no statutory standard of fair dealing. While the good faith duty is fixed by statute, the actions of the GP can be subject to contractual limitation of liability and indemnification provisions, although care must be taken to ensure these do not infringe either public policy or common law principles with respect to fiduciary exculpation.

To read this article in full, please click here.


1. Nicholas Butcher and Iain McMurdo are partners at Maples and Calder.

2. As the overwhelming majority of Cayman private equity funds are ELPs, in this chapter we describe the law and practice applicable to ELPs, except where it is also helpful to refer to other structures.

3. See, for example, Sections 14 to 19 and Section 37 of the Companies Law (2016 Revision).

4. Section 4(2) of the ELP Law.

5. Ibid.

6. Section 4(4) of the ELP Law.

7. We should note for completeness that for onshore reasons it is common to see a mezzanine ELP used as the immediate GP to the private equity fund itself, but that mezzanine ELP will itself need a GP, which in turn will typically be one of the corporate models described.

8. Section 14(2) of the ELP Law.

9. Section 20(1) of the ELP Law.

10. Section 34 of the ELP Law.

11. Penal Code (2017 Revision), Sections 247, 248 and 257.

12. Section 175 of the Companies Law (2016 Revision).

13. Section 38 of the ELP Law.

14. Note that pursuant to Section 183 of the Companies Law (2016 revision), an overseas company selling securities from the Cayman Islands will first need to register as a foreign company under the Companies Law.

15. Section 19 of the ELP Law.

Originally published by The Private Equity Review, 7th Editition, April 2018

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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