Canada: Points de vente corporatifs c. points de vente franchisés : Lesquels réalisent vraiment de meilleures performances?

Bulletin Franchisage
Last Updated: July 15 2019
Article by Jean H. Gagnon

La plupart des franchiseurs et des consultants en franchise tiennent pour acquis qu'un point de vente franchisé obtiendra une meilleure performance qu'un point de vente corporatif en raison du degré de motivation plus élevé d'un franchisé et de la présence sur place du propriétaire entrepreneur.

Il n'existe cependant aucune statistique fiable confirmant, ou infirmant, cette hypothèse.

Dans un intéressant article publié en 2014 (disponible en anglais seulement), le psychologue, auteur et expert en franchise australien Greg Nathan rapporte les constats d'une recherche menée par son équipe auprès de 35 réseaux de franchises exploitant, au total, près de 7 000 points de vente, dont 18 % étaient corporatifs (soit exploités par le franchiseur lui-même ou par une filiale du franchiseur). Aux fins de cette recherche, Greg Nathan et son équipe ont aussi colligé les données de 71 points de vente qui, pour diverses raisons, ont dû être convertis de points de vente corporatifs en points de vente franchisés ou inversement.

Voici les six constats que Greg Nathan tire au terme de ces recherches :

  1. Les ventes des points de vente corporatifs ont augmenté lorsque ceux-ci ont été convertis en points de vente franchisés, mais, en moyenne, que de 6 %. À l'inverse, les ventes des points de vente franchisés ont diminué en moyenne de 4 % lorsque ceux-ci ont été convertis en points de vente corporatifs. Ceci confirme que la franchise peut permettre d'atteindre de meilleures performances au chapitre des ventes, mais loin cependant des 30 % à 40 % estimé par plusieurs franchiseurs;
  2. Les points de vente franchisés ont affiché une meilleure profitabilité que les points de vente corporatifs principalement en raison d'un meilleur contrôle sur les coûts de main-d'Suvre, lesquels étaient en moyenne de 10 % plus élevés pour les points de vente corporatifs;
  3. L'état du point de vente avant sa conversion (de corporatif à franchisé, ou de franchisé à corporatif) a un impact considérable sur ses performances après la conversion. Ainsi, les points de vente mal tenus par des franchisés ont vu leurs ventes augmenter suite à leur conversion en point de vente corporatif. Par contre, un point de vente bien tenu par un franchisé voyait ses ventes diminuer de façon significative suite à sa conversion en point de vente corporatif;
  4. Le soutien aux points de vente corporatifs représente un coût important pour un franchiseur. Ainsi, selon Greg Nathan, le soutien à un point de vente corporatif exige quatre fois plus de temps et de ressources de la part du franchiseur, surtout aux fins de la gestion de ses ressources humaines et pour la formation de ses employés;
  5. Quoique tout indique que les points de vente franchisés génèrent plus de ventes et montrent une meilleure profitabilité que les points de vente corporatifs, plusieurs franchiseurs exploitent avec succès des points de vente corporatifs qui leur sont fort profitables lorsque leur ouverture et leur exploitation sont bien planifiées et gérées;
  6. Enfin, Greg Nathan a relevé un certain paradoxe quant à la conformité aux normes du franchiseur, au degré de satisfaction de la clientèle et à la mise en marché. Alors que les points de vente corporatifs respectaient mieux les normes, programmes et systèmes du franchiseur, ce qui les rend plus faciles à gérer, les franchisés sont plus engagés et proactifs dans leurs efforts pour accroître leur clientèle et pour améliorer la loyauté de leurs clients, et offrent une certaine résistance aux programmes du franchiseur qui leur semblent non effectifs à ces fins. Pour le franchiseur, cela présente un réel défi de gestion, mais, au bout du compte, permet d'obtenir de meilleurs résultats.

Par ailleurs, quelques études universitaires menées par des chercheurs américains sur les aspects purement économiques de la franchise en sont arrivées à la conclusion que, pour maximiser la rentabilité d'un franchiseur, environ 2/3 de son réseau devait être composé de points de vente franchisés et 1/3 de points de vente corporatifs.

Il ne faut cependant pas prendre à la lettre les résultats de ces études puisque la détention par un franchiseur d'un bon nombre de points de vente corporatifs soulève des défis fort importants au chapitre de la gestion de ses relations avec ses franchisés. Elle pose aussi des défis d'ordre légal (notamment en matière de droit de la concurrence) lorsqu'un ou des points de vente détenus par le franchiseur sont situés dans un marché dans lequel se trouve aussi un franchisé.

Au bout du compte, l'expérience démontre qu'il n'y a pas de modèle parfait en matière de détention, par un franchiseur d'un ou plusieurs points de vente corporatifs et que chaque modèle présente à la fois des avantages, des risques et des défis.

Plusieurs franchiseurs réussissent très bien sans détenir aucun point de vente corporatif, alors que d'autres réussissent également en en détenant un bon nombre.

Nous comptons même, parmi les franchiseurs qui réussissent très bien, quelques franchiseurs qui utilisent à la fois plusieurs formules pour le développement de leurs réseaux, telles, par exemple, des points de vente corporatifs, des points de vente détenus en partenariat avec des exploitants et des points de vente franchisés.

L'important n'est donc pas tant la formule retenue par le franchiseur, mais sa compréhension, dès le départ, des enjeux, des risques et des défis propres à la formule qu'il entend privilégier et l'adaptation de sa gestion des relations avec ses franchisés et ses partenaires à la formule retenue.

Fasken possède toute l'expertise et toutes les ressources nécessaires pour vous aider et vous conseiller dans la mise en place et la gestion d'un modèle de franchise adapté à vos besoins, à vos ressources, à votre gestion et à vos objectifs.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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