Canada: « L'entrepreneur aurait dû le savoir » : un retour sur l'obligation de renseignement du donneur d'ouvrage

Journal Constructo – 28 mars 2017

Le 7 mars dernier, la Cour d'appel a rendu jugement dans l'affaire Procureure générale du Québec c. Talon Sebeq inc.1, et a rejeté l'argument du Procureure générale du Québec (représentant le Ministère des Transports du Québec) selon lequel il appartenait à l'entrepreneur de se renseigner davantage sur les risques inhérents au contrat et de les assumer. Ce faisant, la Cour d'appel a maintenu la décision de la Cour supérieure du Québec, laquelle avait condamné le MTQ à verser plus de 1 592 780 $ à l'entrepreneur Talon Sebeq.

Les faits

À la suite d'un appel d'offres émis par le MTQ, l'entrepreneur Talon Sebeq obtient deux contrats d'épandage d'enrobé coulé à froid (« ECF »), l'un sur l'autoroute 70 à Saguenay et l'autre sur la route 170 à Larouche. Conçu en France, l'ECF est censé prolonger à moindre coût la durée de vie des surfaces des routes asphaltées. Normalement, l'ECF a une durée de vie de 3 à 5 ans.

Les travaux sont exécutés en été 2008 et ceux-ci se déroulent sans incident et conformément au devis. Cependant, dès l'automne 2008, les représentants du MTQ constatent que l'ECF mis en place par Talon Sebeq semble s'user prématurément. Au printemps prochain, soit en avril 2009, les parties assistent à une visite des lieux et constantes l'usure avancée de l'ECF.

Les parties conviennent alors que Talon Sebeq exécutera des travaux nécessaires afin de corriger la situation, sous réserve toutefois d'une réclamation par Talon Sebeq pour les coûts de ces travaux additionnels. Les travaux sont exécutés à l'été 2009. Quelques mois plus tard, Talon Sedeq fait parvenir au MTQ son compte au montant de 1 452 562,81 $, que ce dernier refuse de payer.

Au printemps subséquent, soit en mars 2010, les parties se rendent sur place et constatent de nouveau l'arrachement de l'ECF sur de grandes surfaces de l'autoroute. L'entrepreneur exécute alors d'autres travaux correctifs et essais, et soumet sa note au MTQ au montant de 140 218,18 $, lequel refuse de payer en raison de l'usure prématurée de l'ECF.

La relation entre les parties se détériore, et le dossier se judiciarise. Le 29 août 2011, Talon Sebeq dépose une Requête introductive d'instance par laquelle il réclame au MTQ la somme de 1 618 464,76$ pour tous les travaux correctifs réalisés. Pour sa part, le MTQ, conteste la demande de l'entrepreneur, et se portant demanderesse reconventionnelle, réclame la somme de 1 202 171,70$ à titre de remboursement de montants versés à Talon Sebeq en vertu du contrat initial.

La décision

Dans son analyse du dossier, le juge de première instance réfère aux dispositions contractuelles liant les parties. À cet égard, le juge note que le contrat ne comporte aucune clause de garantie de durabilité, contrairement à d'autres contrats auxquels souscrit le MTQ. Par ailleurs, la preuve présentée lors de l'audience démontre que les travaux ont été exécutés correctement et conformément au devis.

De plus, lors de l'audition il a été démontré qu'une quantité importante de pneus à crampons est vendue au Saguenay comparativement à d'autres endroits où le même ECF est utilisé sans difficulté. Les experts retenus par Talon Sebeq concluent que la dégradation rapide de l'ECF avait été causée par l'utilisation intensive de pneus à crampons sur les routes du Saguenay. Le juge de première instance a retenu cette explication et a fait droit à la réclamation de Talon Sebeq. Le MTQ fut condamné à payer la somme de 1 592 780,99 $, avec intérêts au taux légal à compter de l'introduction de l'action.

Le MTQ porte cette décision en appel, où il soutient notamment qu'il appartenait à l'entrepreneur Talon Sebeq de se renseigner davantage à propos des risques inhérents au contrat, à savoir, l'utilisation élevée des pneus à crampons dans la région de Saguenay.

À l'analyse de cet argument, la Cour d'appel note que les ingénieurs et dirigeants du MTQ avaient été qualifiés de « sommité en matière de revêtement de chaussée » par le juge de première instance. De plus, la Cour note que c'est le MTQ qui gère le réseau routier et qui possède les connaissances relatives à son état et à son usage dans les différentes régions de la province, telles que les variations climatiques, les procédés de déneigement, l'épandage de sels ou d'abrasifs, la qualité de la chaussée, l'intensité de la circulation, le ratio véhicules/camions, la fréquence horaire des usagers, etc. La Cour observe de plus que c'est le MTQ qui assure la réglementation du réseau routier pour en contrôler l'usage. Par conséquent, la Cour énonce que le MTQ devait connaître les pratiques régionales des automobilistes qui utilisent des pneus munis de crampons métalliques.

De plus, la Cour d'appel retient que la preuve présentée en première instance avait démontré que le MTQ était bel et bien conscient des risques importants dans l'usage de l'ECF dans la région de Saguenay et qu'il a choisi de ne pas transférer ou dévoiler ces risques à l'entrepreneur.

Selon la Cour, le MTQ aurait pu choisir de transférer ces risques à l'entrepreneur, en dévoilant les risques appréhendés aux soumissionnaires, mais cela n'a pas été fait. La Cour d'appel énonce que ce choix du MTQ de ne pas dévoiler ces risques aux soumissionnaires n'est pas sans conséquence. La Cour maintient donc la décision du juge de première instance et rejette l'appel.

Conclusion

Cette affaire rappelle l'importance pour tout donneur d'ouvrage d'agir de manière transparente envers les soumissionnaires. Lorsque le donneur d'ouvrage connaît ou devrait connaître de l'information susceptible d'influencer les conditions d’exécution des travaux ou les risques y afférents, celui-ci doit les communiquer aux soumissionnaires et aux cocontractants. En cas de manquement à son obligation positive de renseignement, le donneur d'ouvrage s'expose à une condamnation pour les dommages causés par ce manquement.

Cet article est paru dans l’édition du 28 mars 2017 du journal Constructo

Footnote

1 2017 QCCA 363

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.