Canada: Règlement D'une Action Collective Et Renonciation À La Solidarité : Le Recours Récursoire Interdit

Last Updated: October 6 2016
Article by Jo-Anne Demers and Frédéric Pagé

Tout recours récursoire dans le cadre d'un recours collectif contre un débiteur solidaire libéré de la solidarité est irrecevable. C'est ce que confirme un arrêt récent de la Cour d'appel1.

Dans le cadre de deux recours collectifs intentés par David Brown à l'encontre de diverses parties, dont une firme comptable ainsi que la société de fiducie B2B Trust, Brown tenait les codéfendeurs conjointement et solidairement responsables.

Cependant, par le biais d'une entente intervenue en février 2016 approuvée par le tribunal, les membres des actions collectives ont renoncé à la solidarité entre les codébiteurs libérant, entres autres B2B Trust, de son obligation à la totalité de la dette. Le seul montant dont serait dorénavant responsable B2B Trust découlerait uniquement de sa propre faute.

En mai 2016, B2B Trust a intenté un recours en garantie tentant ainsi de ramener la firme comptable dans le litige et cherchant à se faire indemniser dans l'éventualité où B2B Trust devrait payer une somme d'argent à la suite du jugement sur les recours collectif qui continuent contre certaines parties. B2B Trust plaide que sans les conseils de la firme comptable, elle n'aurait pas accepté le placement ou l'investissement des membres et allègue la responsabilité extracontractuelle de la firme comptable à son égard. B2B Trust prétend avoir une cause d'action indépendante et distincte non basée sur la solidarité et qu'elle peut ainsi à tout moment déposer un recours en garantie.

En première instance, la Cour supérieure confirme qu'un recours récursoire est impossible contre un codébiteur libéré. La part de responsabilité attribuable au codébiteur libéré sera assumée par les membres du recours collectifs et non par les autres codébiteurs.

Vu la jurisprudence abondante sur le sujet par les instances inférieures, la Cour d'appel confirme le jugement de première instance et la transaction qui a eu lieu. En effet, la Cour réaffirme qu'une remise par un créancier en faveur d'un codébiteur solidaire entraîne une renonciation à la solidarité pour sa partie et confirme donc une fois pour toute qu'intenter un recours récursoire contre une partie libérée devient illusoire.

Application aux actions collectives

La Cour spécifie que, à ce jour, il ne semble pas y avoir un arrêt portant sur ce principe dans le cadre d'action collective, bien que la question ait déjà été abordée à quelques reprises par la Cour supérieure. Qu'à cela ne tienne, cet arrêt ne crée pas de droit nouveau, mais permet plutôt de confirmer l'application dans le cadre d'un recours collectif de cette règle déjà suivie dans les actions régulières.

De ce fait, la Cour éclaircit l'application concrète de la remise de la solidarité dans le cadre d'une action collective et rejette la possibilité d'un recours récursoire contre le débiteur solidaire libéré.

Footnotes

1 B2B Trust c. Samson & Associés, 2016 QCCA 1569

Règlement D'une Action Collective Et Renonciation À La Solidarité : Le Recours Récursoire Interdit

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