Canada: Designing Internal Controls For Small Organizations

Designing internal controls for a small business or organization is a difficult task for management and/or the board to undertake. There are some that say it cannot be done because there are too few employees in the organization. We disagree. It can be done with a bit of forethought about the design of the workflow that needs to be accomplished. To begin the process, consideration needs to be given to the four major components of internal controls: control environment, risk assessment, technology and monitoring.

An important part of any organization is its team of employees and the environment in which this team operates. To understand how to design internal controls for small organizations, one must understand the control problems within the organization. The most common problem encountered by small organizations occurs when a small staff is involved in the financial function. Often, the same individual is given access to assets and the recording of transactions due to the limited number of employees sharing the workload. Unfortunately, this results in individuals being able to easily conceal any fraud or errors they cause. This is referred to as an insufficient segregation of duties. (An example of this would be an individual being tasked to perform the bank reconciliation and make cash deposits.)

Risks such as this can be mitigated through the use of strong internal controls. For strong controls to take hold, all team members must demonstrate a strong commitment to honesty, integrity and ethical values. If there is one employee that does not agree with the controls put in place, the control environment will suffer. Within the control environment, management's tone will set the pace. If there is a solid tone at the top, it will provide the perfect environment for sturdy controls to take root. Combine this with the separation of incompatible duties – such as having different employees reconcile the bank and take responsibility for cash deposits – and the organization will have stronger internal controls.

To set up a system of strong internal controls, it is important to have a good understanding of the risks that affect the organization's control environment. Risks vary from organization to organization, but fraud should always be taken into consideration when designing internal controls. For example, an organization that has cash transactions is vulnerable to a misappropriation of assets due to the risk of theft. To mitigate this risk, management should review bank reconciliations and ensure that its gross margin is within an acceptable range. When there are changes in the environment (i.e. new staff), these risks should be reassessed and controls should be changed as necessary. For example, upon the departure of a staff member in charge of online banking, the username and password should be changed to block access to the account. This continuous risk assessment will ensure that controls in place will be secure and useful.

Organizations should consider the use of technology – hardware and software – when establishing a strong control environment. With the correct technology in place, the production of reader-friendly reports can provide relevant information to management and those charged with oversight, providing them with insight as to the operation of controls. If software provides reports that are difficult to read or unnecessarily complicated, it will be harder to detect fraud, error and the deterioration of controls. For example, a manager reviewing a budget report may misinterpret the results if there is an abundance of useless information. If the report is too detailed (too many accounts) or not detailed enough (too few accounts), it may not provide information necessary to make informed decisions.

Technology extends beyond the use of reports. Through the use of software features, management can restrict an employee's access to areas that are not required for them to perform their job functions. For example, management could restrict the payroll clerk's access to the accounts payable sub ledger. The use of electronic signatures is also a way to ensure that electronic documents are reviewed. Having the proper software in place will allow controls to function properly.

In order for internal controls to function and perform as intended, it is important to establish a monitoring process to ensure that the controls are being applied consistently. Depending on the control and the individual accountable for the control, management – or those charged with oversight – should be responsible for monitoring. In some cases where a manager is responsible for most of the organization's administrative functions, those charged with oversight (such as the board or owner) would be more involved with day-to-day operations and responsible for the review of reports. The monitoring process should reinforce the importance of proper internal controls for the entire organization. If inefficiencies are identified through this process, action needs to be taken immediately to address the problems.  

In conclusion, there are several considerations to keep in mind when designing controls for small organizations. These controls will aid in the achievement of an organization's objectives, provide reliable financial reporting, ensure compliance with laws and regulations and protect the organization's resources against waste and fraud.

To determine the best approach to internal controls for your organization, consult with your local Collins Barrow professional today.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions