Canada: Sign Of The Times: 177 Nations (And Counting) Ink The Paris Climate Agreement While The World Bank And IMF Push For Carbon Pricing

Last Updated: May 5 2016
Article by Selina Lee-Andersen

Most Read Contributor in Canada, September 2018

Paris Agreement Now Open for Signature

Earth Day 2016 – April 22nd – marked the opening of the Paris Agreement for signature at the United Nations (UN) Headquarters in New York. The Paris Agreement, which was adopted by the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on December 12, 2015, will remain open for signature until April 21, 2017.  The signature ceremony was attended by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau along with other heads of state and UN officials.  By signing the Paris Agreement, a party indicates its intention to take steps to express its consent to be bound by the agreement. A separate act of depositing of an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the UN Depositary is required to express a party's consent to be bound.

As of April 27, 2016, 177 countries had signed the Paris Agreement, 15 of which have also deposited instruments of ratification. Canada is expected to ratify the Paris Agreement in 2016 along with Australia, Argentina, Cameroon, China, France, Mali, Mexico, the Philippines and the United States. The Paris Agreement will enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 parties to the UNFCCC accounting in total for at least an estimated 55% of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the UN Depositary.  While the United States and China issued a joint statement on March 31, 2016 pledging rapid accession to the Paris Agreement, the two nations represent approximately 38% of global emissions. This means that other significant emitters and a number of additional nations will be needed to meet both the emissions and number thresholds that will bring the Paris Agreement into force.  Entry into force could happen as early as 2017 or 2018, but given the varying timelines for countries to complete their domestic approval processes, the timing of entry into force is uncertain at this time. The World Resources Institute has unveiled its Paris Agreement Tracker, an interactive tool which enables users to monitor countries' progress toward ratifying the Paris Agreement.

World Bank and IMF Create Carbon Finance Unit to Facilitate the Development of Carbon Pricing Systems

In a move to bolster the pace of development of carbon pricing systems around the world, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) has created a Carbon Finance Unit that will provide financial and technical assistance to countries that are creating carbon pricing systems. The World Bank and IMF have identified climate change as a key driver of global poverty and the campaign for carbon pricing by two of the world's biggest lenders began as world leaders gathered in New York to sign the Paris Agreement. Leveraging their economic and technical expertise, the World Bank and IMF will work together with developing countries to help them create carbon pricing systems. To date, the World Bank has given an $8 million dollar grant to China, which is developing what is expected to be the world's largest cap-and-trade program. South Africa and Chile have also received similar grants from the World Bank. The IMF is advising countries on how best to introduce carbon pricing as a means to generate revenue while simultaneously reducing their GHG emissions.

In its report, State and Trends in Carbon Pricing 2015, the World Bank and Ecofys estimate that almost 40 countries and more than 20 cities, states and provinces currently use carbon pricing mechanisms or are planning to implement them. These jurisdictions are responsible for more than 22% of global emissions. Others are developing or considering systems that will put a price on carbon in the future. Altogether, these actions will encompass almost half of global CO2 emissions.

On April 21, 2016, the World Bank, IMF, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the heads of state of Canada, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Germany and Mexico released a statement calling for more carbon pricing.  The goal is to reach enough countries to cover 25% of the world's GHG emissions by 2020 and 50% of emissions by 2030.

In recent climate change policy developments in Canada, the country's First Ministers issued a joint communiqué on March 3, 2016 following the First Ministers' Meeting in Vancouver and released the Vancouver Declaration on Clean Growth and Climate Change. At the meeting, Prime Minister Trudeau and the Premiers launched a process to develop national climate change plan which includes the establishment of working groups to study: (i) clean technology, innovation and jobs, (ii) carbon pricing mechanisms, (iii) mitigation opportunities, and (iv) adaptation and climate resilience. The working groups are expected to report back by October, following which a national climate change plan will be negotiated.

Ontario to Establish an "Ultra Low Carbon Utility"

In related climate change news, it has been reported that under its proposed Climate Change Action Plan, Ontario will establish a new agency – referred to as the "ultra low carbon utility" – which will have a mandate to transform how Ontarians use energy in order to reduce GHG emissions. The Climate Change Action Plan, which is part of Ontario's broader Climate Change Strategy, is expected to be released in May.

As reported, the Climate Change Action Plan will set out various emission reduction initiatives that will complement the province's planned cap-and-trade system, including initiatives to make the majority of the province's buildings emissions free, put at least 1.7 million electric and hybrid vehicles in use by 2024, and have 80% of residents use public transit, walk or cycle to work by 2050. In addition, the Climate Change Action Plan will seek to reduce emissions from buildings by 15% by 2030 with a view to ensuring that most buildings will be emissions free by 2050.  This would be achieved by providing support to businesses and consumers to install solar panels or geothermal systems and to undertake retrofits, as well as by changing the building code to establish energy efficiency standards for renovations and new construction. Also, the Climate Change Action Plan would provide funding to industry to switch to cleaner facilities and for research into low-carbon technologies. Further, the Ontario government plans to acquire offsets to make its operations carbon neutral in 2017, and the 2030, the government will aim to cut its own emissions by 50% by 2030.

The Ontario Ministry of Environment has indicated that the Climate Change Action Plan is still in draft form and that stakeholder consultations are continuing. The Climate Change Action Plan sets out the province's broad policy initiatives, meaning that details on the amount of low-carbon electricity generation and how the new agency will fit within the current electricity distribution, transmission and generation system will still need to be worked out.

To view the original article, please click here.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions