BUSINESS INCOME TAX MEASURES
Small Business Tax Rate
The federal small business reduction will remain at 17.5 per cent for 2016 and subsequent taxation years, which provides for a federal small business tax rate of 10.5 per cent, down from 11.0 per cent in 2015. Of course, the provincial rate must be added to determine the actual rate.
The related dividend gross-up of 17 per cent for other than eligible dividends and the dividend tax credit of 21/29 of the gross-up will remain for 2016 and subsequent taxation years. Consequently, the prior proposals to further increase the SBD rate and reduce the related small business tax rate for 2017 and subsequent taxation years, along with the consequential changes to the dividend gross-up and dividend tax credit, will not be going ahead.
Multiplication of the Small Business Deduction
The current specified partnership income rules are intended to prevent the multiplication of the SBD where a corporate partnership is utilized since each corporate partner is only entitled to an SBD equal to its share of the partnership's active business income multiplied by $500,000. Structures have been implemented to circumvent these rules through the utilization of a separate Canadian-controlled private corporation (CCPC) which is not a member of the partnership. Such corporation (which would be owned by the shareholder of one of the corporate partners or by a person who is not at arm's-length with the shareholder) would be paid by the partnership for services provided.
The Budget proposes to deem this separate CCPC to be a member of the partnership, which in effect, causes the active income earned by this CCPC from services billed to the partnership to still be subject to its prorated share of the annual SBD.
Similar rules will apply where a CCPC provides services or property to certain private corporations rather than to a partnership as in the above example. The income so earned by the CCPC will be ineligible for the SBD where, at any time during the year, the CCPC, one of its shareholders or a person who does not deal at arm's length with such a shareholder has a direct or indirect interest in the private corporation.
These proposals generally apply to taxation years which begin on or after Budget Day. In addition, these proposals do not apply to a CCPC all or substantially all of the active income of which is from providing services or property to arm's-length persons other than the partnership.
Currently, certain investment income, such as rent or interest, earned by a CCPC, from an associated CCPC that deducts the payments from its own active income, is treated as active income rather than investment income. In addition, two CCPCs, which are not normally associated with each other are considered to be associated by being associated with the same "third" corporation. Although these two CCPCs can elect not to be associated for SBD purposes, the above rule which treats certain investment income to be active rather than passive still applies.
The Budget proposes to retain the character of the investment income in the hands of the recipient as investment income rather than deeming it to be active income where the "third company" election not to be associated is utilized. In addition, where the "third company" election not to be associated is utilized, the third company will continue to be associated with each of the other two CCPCs for purposes of applying the $10 – 15 million taxable capital limit for SBD purposes.
Tax on Personal Services Business Income
Effective January 1, 2016, the federal tax rate on personal services business income will be increased by 5 per cent (from 28 per cent to 33 per cent) to correspond with the increase in the top federal marginal personal tax rate to 33 per cent on taxable income over $200,000 for 2016 and subsequent years. The rate increase will be prorated for taxation years which straddle January 1, 2016.
Consultation on Active versus Investment Income
The consultation resulting from the 2015 Budget to review the circumstances in which income from property should qualify as active business income was completed in August 2015. The Budget did not introduce any changes to these rules.
Distributions Involving Life Insurance Proceeds
The Budget proposes measures to ensure that the addition to the capital dividend account (CDA) for private corporations and the adjusted cost base for partnership interests, on the death of an individual insured under a life insurance policy, is reduced by the adjusted cost basis of the policy. This will be the case whether or not the corporation or partnership that receives the policy benefit is the policyholder and therefore the premium payer. In addition, information reporting requirements will apply where a corporation or partnership is not a policyholder, but is entitled to receive a policy benefit. This measure will apply to policy benefits received as a result of a death that occurs on or after Budget Day.
Transfers of Life Insurance Policies
Currently, where a policyholder disposes of their interest in a life insurance policy to a non-arm's-length person (to a corporation for example), the policyholder's proceeds are deemed to be equal to the cash surrender value (CSV) of the policy at the time notwithstanding the fact that the fair market value (FMV) of the policy, and therefore the consideration received by the transferor, might be higher. The policyholder would be taxable only to the extent that the CSV exceeds the adjusted cost basis of the policy at the time; any excess of the FMV of the policy over the CSV is not currently taxable. In addition, this excess of FMV over the adjusted cost basis can later be effectively extracted through the corporation's CDA. Similar concerns arise in the partnership context and where a policy is contributed to a corporation as capital.
The Budget proposes that the policyholder's proceeds in the above scenario would be the FMV of the policy rather than its CSV. Consequently, any excess of the FMV over the adjusted cost basis would be taxable. This measure will apply to dispositions on or after Budget Day.
The Budget also proposes to amend the CDA rules for private corporations and the adjusted cost basis computation for partnership interests where the interest in the policy was disposed of before Budget Day for consideration in excess of the CSV of the policy. This amendment, which in essence amounts to retroactive taxation, will reduce the addition to the corporation's CDA or adjusted cost base of an interest in a partnership by the amount of such excess which will result in tax when the funds are withdrawn from the company. Consequently, additional funds would be required to pay these taxes, a cost not anticipated when the policy was transferred to the company. This measure will apply in respect of policies under which policy benefits are received as a result of deaths occurring on or after Budget Day.
Valuation of Derivatives
Inventory is generally valued at the end of the year at the lower of its cost and FMV, which provides for a write-down to the extent that the FMV is less than the cost at year-end. However, accrued gains on inventory are not recognized until sold. Although there is generally no concern with conventional types of inventory, the potentially long-term holding period for derivatives is a concern to the Department of Finance. Consequently, the Budget proposes to exclude certain derivatives as inventory to preclude the utilization of the above valuation method to create a current write-down. This measure will apply to derivatives entered into on or after Budget Day.
Debt Parking to Avoid Foreign Exchange Gains
Where a foreign currency debt is on capital account, any applicable foreign exchange gain is not realized by the debtor until the debt is settled or extinguished. In order to avoid realizing the foreign exchange gain on the repayment of the debt, some taxpayers have entered into debt-parking transactions where a non-arm's-length person would acquire the debt from the lender. The current debt-parking tax rules do not take into account the foreign exchange gain realized on the debt. The Budget proposes to introduce rules so that any accrued foreign exchange gains on foreign currency debt will be realized when the debt becomes a "parked obligation". This measure will generally apply to a foreign currency debt which becomes a parked obligation on or after Budget Day.
Eligible Capital Property
The 2014 federal budget announced that the existing rules that related to both the acquisition and disposition of eligible capital property (ECP) (such as goodwill) would be reviewed.
At the present time, 75 per cent of the cost of ECP is added to the cumulative eligible capital (CEC) pool which is amortized at the rate of 7 per cent per annum of the declining balance. The proceeds of disposition of ECP are first credited to the CEC pool, if any, and previous deductions are recaptured. 50 per cent of the balance is treated as active business income (and 50 per cent falls into the CDA). The effective tax rate is therefore half of the small business rate and/or half of the general rate applicable to active business income.
Note that each of the provinces imposes its own provincial rate. So, for example, in Ontario, the rate applicable to the small business income portion would be 7.50 per cent (50 per cent of 15.0 per cent) and 13.25 per cent (50 per cent of 26.5 per cent) on the non-small business portion; in British Columbia, the rate applicable to the small business income portion would be 6.50 per cent (50 per cent of 13.0 per cent) and 13.00 per cent (50 per cent of 26.0 per cent) on the non-small business portion.
Ignoring the lack of a reserve for deferred proceeds on the sale of goodwill, this treatment has, initially, been more attractive than the result of treating the gain as a capital gain which is taxed at 50 per cent of the high corporate rate applicable to investment income resulting in an effective rate of approximately 25 per cent.
The Budget introduces a new regime that will be effective on January 1, 2017.
The new rules will add 100 per cent of the cost of what has heretofore been classified as ECP to a new capital cost allowance (CCA) class, Class 14.1, which will be depreciated at the rate of 5 per cent of the declining balance per annum. 100 per cent of the proceeds of disposition of this type of property will be credited to the pool in accordance with the existing rules applicable to dispositions of depreciable property.
Transitional rules will transfer December 31, 2016 CEC pool balances to Class 14.1. For 10 years, pre-2017 balances will be depreciated at the rate of 7 per cent of the declining balance per annum. Small businesses will benefit from more generous write-offs for minor expenditures. For example, the first $3,000 of the cost of incorporation will be deductible as a current expense.
Accelerated Capital Cost Allowance
The Budget proposes to expand CCA
Classes 43.1 and 43.2 to include electric vehicle charging stations
and electric energy storage equipment acquired on or after Budget
Day that would otherwise be included under CCA Class 8. This would
provide tax deferral as Classes 43.1 and 43.2 provide for CCA at
rates of 30 per cent and 50 per cent, respectively, on a
declining-balance basis, while Class 8 only provides a
declining-balance rate of 20 per cent.
Charging stations that supply less than 90 kilowatts of power would be included in Class 43.1, while stations that supply 90 kilowatts or more would be included in Class 43.2.
Electric energy storage equipment that is part of an electricity generation system that is eligible for Class 43.1 or 43.2 will be included in the same class as the system. Standalone electrical storage equipment may also be eligible for Class 43.1 or 43.2 treatment if certain criteria are met.
Emission Trading Regimes
Governments may require emitters of regulated substances such as greenhouse gases to remit emissions allowances to them. Such allowances can be supplied by the government, purchased in a market, or earned based on emission-reducing activities.
Current tax rules do not specifically address emission allowances. The Budget proposes to provide guidance to treat emission allowances as inventory for taxation years beginning after 2016. Also, these rules would apply to emission allowances acquired in taxation years ending after 2012 if so elected by a taxpayer. Due to the high volatility of such allowances, inventory valuation under the lower of cost and net realizable method would not be permitted.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.