In the distressed M&A context, a stalking horse refers to a
potential purchaser participating in a stalking horse auction who
agrees to acquire the assets or business of an insolvent debtor as
a going concern. In a stalking horse auction of an insolvent
business, a preliminary bid by the stalking horse bidder is
disclosed to the market and becomes the minimum bid, or floor
price, that other parties can then outbid.
Extensively used in the United States, the stalking horse
auction is different than the sealed competitive bidding process
that is predominantly used in Canada. That said, stalking horse
auction processes have been used in Canada in a number of
cases. Most recently, in February of this year, the Superior
Court of Justice of Ontario approved a stalking horse auction
process in the case of In the Matter of the Receivership of Crate Marine
Sales Limited et al., despite the objections of certain
creditors. That Court applied the 4-part test set out in the
decision of Morawetz J. in Brainhunter Inc. for approving a stalking
horse auction process, namely: 1. Is the sale transaction warranted
at this time?; 2. Will the sale benefit the economic community?; 3.
Do any of the creditors have a bona fide reason to object to the
sale of the business?; and 4. Is there a better viable
The stalking horse participates in the process knowing that it
may be outbid. Accordingly, it negotiates a break fee to
cover its participation costs, including its due diligence costs to
put together the initial threshold bid. Typically, for a competing
bid to knock out the stalking horse bid, it will have to be greater
than the stalking horse bid plus the break fee. The competing bid
will also have to be on substantially the same terms and conditions
as the stalking horse bid, and cannot contain any onerous
What is a typical Stalking Horse Process?
A typical stalking horse sales process is as follows:
Stalking horse negotiates a purchase and sale agreement (the
"Stalking Horse Bid") with the insolvent debtor;
Court approves the entering into of the Stalking Horse Bid,
including the break fee, and a charge on the assets of the
insolvent debtor to secure the break fee. Interestingly though, in
the Crate Marine Sales Limited case referenced above, the Stalking
Horse Bid did not contain a break fee or for any recovery of
stalking horse costs if it was outbid;
Court also approves a set of bid procedures that provides for:
a sales process by which superior overbids will be sought,
including a short deadline for such bids;
the test which will be used to determine if a superior bid to the
Stalking Horse Bid is made by one or more other bidders; and
a follow-up auction process, if necessary, often held on a single
date, on which any bidder that made a superior bid, plus the
stalking horse, may bid again in an attempt to make the best and
winning bid; and
Final approval by the Court of the winning bid and issuance of a
vesting order by the Court to complete the sales transaction.
Why become a Stalking Horse?
So, why would you want to consider being a stalking horse?
First, as a stalking horse, you will have the best chance at
negotiating the deal terms that are tailored to meet your
particular concerns. Also, as the first bidder, you will have more
time to analyze and understand the debtor's business. You
will also have an opportunity to develop relationships with
management, suppliers and key stakeholders in the sales process.
Further, your costs of participating in the auction process are
covered by the break fee that you will negotiate. As noted above,
that break fee is usually secured by a special court-ordered charge
against the assets of the insolvent debtor, though you will have to
consider the relative priority of your charge against other charges
that may have been approved by the court.
Thus, if you are considering acquiring the assets or businesses
of distressed companies in the energy sector, you might want to
give some thought to agreeing to be a stalking horse in a stalking
horse auction process. Though Court approval of the process will be
required, in cases where there is a need for speed, and for there
to be certainty of the completion of a sale to provide short-term
stability so that management can develop a business plan to
continue the business while the stalking horse auction plays out,
the stalking horse auction process may well be accepted by a Court
as the best sales process.
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The Government of Alberta recently announced a number of policy changes that will impact the Alberta Electricity Market, composed of its generators, transmitters, distributors, retailers, electricity consumers and wholesale electricity market.
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