Canada: Le Choix d’Angelina

Le 14 mai 2013, l'actrice et réalisatrice Angelina Jolie a publié une première tribune intitulée « My Medical Choice » dans le New York Times expliquant son choix de procéder à une double mastectomie1 afin de réduire ses chances de développer un cancer du sein. Angelina avait appris que, comme sa mère, elle était porteuse d'une mutation dans le gène BRCA1 et que cette mutation était associée à un risque élevé de développer un cancer du sein.2 Pour la petite histoire, rappelons que la mère d'Angelina est décédée à l'âge de 56 ans à la suite de complications liées à un cancer du sein.

Le 24 mars dernier, Angelina a publié une seconde tribune intitulée « Angelina Jolie Pitt: Diary of a Surgery » (toujours dans le New York Times) où elle relate son choix d'avoir fait retirer ses ovaires et ses trompes de Fallope afin de réduire son risque de développer un cancer des ovaires. Il est important de mentionner que la mutation du gène BRCA1 que porte Angelina la prédispose non seulement à développer un cancer du sein, mais également un cancer des ovaires.3

Les publications d'Angelina ont causé une onde de choc dans la communauté médicale car elle faisait la promotion de la proactivité afin de prendre en main sa santé et, plus philosophiquement, sa destinée. Moi, cette histoire m'a touchée, non seulement parce que je suis une femme et une maman, mais aussi parce qu'elle démontre l'importance de développer et de commercialiser des outils diagnostiques poussés afin de fournir l'information nécessaire aux médecins, infirmières et patient(e)s et de protéger ces innovations technologiques.

Les nouvelles trousses diagnostiques prennent plusieurs années à être peaufinées avant d'être mises sur le marché. Les compagnies qui les développent prennent des risques et dépensent des millions de dollars pour leur développement et leur validation. De plus, une fois sur mis sur le marché, les outils diagnostiques peuvent souvent être relativement facilement copiés. Les risques associés au développement de nouveaux outils diagnostiques sont en partie mitigés par l'obtention de brevets qui protègent les actifs intangibles des compagnies qui les développent. Je pousserai même le raisonnement en affirmant que le choix d'Angelina n'aurait pu être possible sans la protection par brevets accordée aux méthodes et outils diagnostiques.

Je m'explique.

Angelina a sûrement fait analyser son code génétique par la compagnie Myriad Genetics, un pionnier dans le domaine du diagnostic du cancer du sein qui a découvert (et breveté) le lien entre les mutations dans le gène BRCA1 et le cancer du sein et des ovaires. Myriad Genetics a su, à tort ou à raison, se tailler une place dominante dans le marché nord-américain dans le domaine du diagnostic du cancer du sein, entre autre à cause de ses brevets.

Récemment, aux États-Unis, certains des brevets de Myriad Genetics ont été invalidés. En effet, l'éligibilité à la protection des brevets des méthodes diagnostiques a été mise à rude épreuve dans les trois dernières années. Les méthodes diagnostiques ont été scrutées sous la loupe de la Cour Suprême dans les arrêts de Mayo c. Prometheus4 et de l'AMP c. Myriad.5 Dans ces décisions, les juges ont cru nécessaire de clarifier que de découvrir et revendiquer une corrélation entre un biomarqueur6 et une maladie était tout simplement insuffisant pour obtenir un brevet (même si cette corrélation était nouvelle et non-évidente). De plus, les juges ont également indiqué que la découverte d'un biomarqueur, dans sa forme native ou isolé, n'était pas nécessairement éligible à la protection par brevet.

Ce qui en a surpris plusieurs, c'est que la Cour a conclu que les revendications examinées n'aurait jamais dû être accordées puisque ces dernières ne rencontrent pas la définition d'une « invention » (c.-à-d. qu'elles ne sont pas éligibles à la protection par brevet) selon la loi américaine. Dans le monde des brevets, cette manière de penser était diamétralement opposée aux pratiques existantes du bureau des brevets américain ainsi qu'aux attentes de plusieurs de mes clients.

Tout juste avant Noël, le bureau des brevets américain a publié des lignes directrices pour ses examinateurs réitérant les conclusions de la Cour. Ces lignes directrices présentent, entre autre, comment les examinateurs doivent procéder à l'évaluation de l'éligibilité à la protection par brevet des revendications touchant les méthodes diagnostiques.

Est-ce que tout est perdu pour les innovateurs dans le domaine diagnostique? Pas nécessairement. Souvent la mise en place d'outils diagnostiques sophistiqués nécessite d'autres innovations qui peuvent être considérées comme étant éligibles à la protection par brevet (réactifs, anticorps, logiciels, etc.). De plus, dans d'autres juridictions comme le Canada et l'Europe, il est encore possible d'obtenir une protection par brevet pour les méthodes diagnostiques.

Un des objectif du système des brevets est de favoriser le décloisonnement et l'échange d'informations. Dans un excellent billet de mon collègue Patrice sur ce blogue, il a été prouvé d'ores et déjà que le système des brevets facilite la divulgation d'information qui ultimement nourrit un nouveau cycle d'innovation. Dans le domaine des méthodes diagnostiques, le brevet non seulement protège les innovations mais favorise également la divulgation de données. Les brevets sont donc une source importante d'information qui peuvent permettre la génération de nouveaux outils diagnostiques plus puissants.

Et comme l'écrivait Angelina dans sa deuxième tribune dans le New York Times : « Knowledge is power ».

Footnotes

1 Une ablation des deux seins.

2 Dans le cas d'Angelina, elle avait 87% de risque de développer un cancer du sein.

3 Dans le cas d'Angelina, elle avait 50% de risque de développer un cancer des ovaires.

4 Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc., 566 U.S. ___, 132 S. Ct. 1289, 1304 (2012).

5 Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., 569 U.S. __, 133 S. Ct. 2107 (2013).

6 Un biomarqueur est une substance obtenue du corps humain étant liée à un processus biologique normal ou pathologique.

Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP

Norton Rose Fulbright is a global legal practice. We provide the world's pre-eminent corporations and financial institutions with a full business law service. We have more than 3800 lawyers based in over 50 cities across Europe, the United States, Canada, Latin America, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

Recognized for our industry focus, we are strong across all the key industry sectors: financial institutions; energy; infrastructure, mining and commodities; transport; technology and innovation; and life sciences and healthcare.

Wherever we are, we operate in accordance with our global business principles of quality, unity and integrity. We aim to provide the highest possible standard of legal service in each of our offices and to maintain that level of quality at every point of contact.

Norton Rose Fulbright LLP, Norton Rose Fulbright Australia, Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP, Norton Rose Fulbright South Africa (incorporated as Deneys Reitz Inc) and Fulbright & Jaworski LLP, each of which is a separate legal entity, are members ('the Norton Rose Fulbright members') of Norton Rose Fulbright Verein, a Swiss Verein. Norton Rose Fulbright Verein helps coordinate the activities of the Norton Rose Fulbright members but does not itself provide legal services to clients.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

    Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of www.mondaq.com

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

    Disclaimer

    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

    Registration

    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

    Cookies

    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

    Links

    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

    Mail-A-Friend

    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

    Emails

    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .

    Security

    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions