Canada: Shotgun Clauses: Court Of Appeal For Ontario Upholds Shareholders’ Right To Go "All Or Nothing"

In Western Larch Limited v Di Poce Management Limited1, the Court of Appeal for Ontario recently heard an appeal from a case in which partial summary judgment was granted in a commercial dispute involving the exercise of a shotgun clause.

Shotgun clauses, sometimes called "buy-sell provisions," are a type of provision that may be included in a shareholders' agreement that permits a shareholder to offer a specific price per share for the other shareholders' shares. The other shareholders must then either accept the offer or buy the offering shareholder's shares at that price. Whether initiating or responding to an exercised shotgun clause, the stakes are often high when a shotgun is triggered and time is often of the essence.


In Western Larch, five corporations involved in manufacturing and distributing wood products were parties to a partnership agreement that contained a shotgun clause. One of the shareholder partners died, triggering the other partners' obligation to buy out his company's interest in the partnership. However, all of the remaining partners except Western Larch wanted the late partner's company to remain in the partnership. The remaining partners decided to exercise their shotgun rights, and delivered a buy-sell offer to Western Larch.

The shotgun provision

The shotgun provision contained, inter alia, two alternatives for repaying the partnership debt on exit. The first alternative required the partnership to repay its debt to the exiting partner in full on closing. The second provided that half of the debt was to be paid on closing, with the balance paid over four years with interest. Additionally, the clause provided that if the party subject to its exercise did not select between these alternatives, it would be deemed to have chosen the latter.

The dispute

Upon receipt of the buy-sell offer, Western Larch issued a statement of claim attacking the validity of the clause, and moved unsuccessfully for an injunction to restrain the respondent majority partners from implementing the buy-sell offer. The majority partners acquired Western Larch's interest in the partnership, in accordance with a deemed acceptance of repayment of half of the remaining partnership debt over a four-year period with interest.

Western Larch argued that the buy-sell offer did not comply strictly with the requirements found in the partnership agreement, and asked the court to find that the majority partner's buy-sell offer was invalid for a number of reasons. Its chief complaint centered on the valuation used by the offerors, specifically, that it was not based on market value and did not reflect its interest in the partnership.

Decision of the Commercial List

The lower court held that a non-compliant shotgun buy-sell offer is an "ordinary, and therefore, prima facie, legally valid, offer to buy or to sell, but it lacks enforceability for shotgun purposes."  However, the motion judge concluded there was no requirement in the partnership agreement that the valuation used in the shotgun offer be based on market value.

Regarding Western Larch's other complaints, the motion judge set three of the issues for trial, and dismissed the rest on summary judgment. Notably, the court found there to be a genuine issue for trial over whether or not Western Larch suffered damage due to not being paid its partnership debt in full on closing. Western Larch appealed on the grounds that the motion judge misapplied the meaning of the "strict compliance" requirement with the terms of the partnership agreement.

Decision of the Court of Appeal

The Court of Appeal for Ontario dismissed Western Larch's appeal, and, in so doing, provided valuable guidance on the interpretation and enforcement of shotgun clauses. The court noted that shotgun clauses operate to involuntarily expel a party from what is, usually, a viable business venture. The severity of this result has led some courts to describe this as a "draconian" remedy, and this is why the law requires shotgun offers to comply strictly with the provision in the authorizing agreement. The court cited with approval the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench's finding that: "A shotgun buy-sell is strong medicine. One takes it strictly in accordance with the prescription or not at all."3

In concluding that the shotgun offer in this case complied with the terms of the partnership agreement, and was thus enforceable, the court makes two important findings. First, the partners could have included a provision requiring the valuation specified in a buy-sell offer to be based on fair market value. Second, the partners could have included a provision prohibiting partners from combining to oust another partner.  

Ultimately, the court affirmed that it is not its role to "rescue a party who later regrets contractual arrangements that were carefully designed and accepted."4

The decision in Western Larch thus serves as an important reminder for parties to carefully consider, and carefully draft, shotgun provisions, especially given that failure to do so could result in an involuntary exit from their business.


12013 ONCA 722 [Western Larch].

2 Western Larch at para 18.

3 Trimac Ltd v C-I-L Inc (1987), 52 Alta LR (2d) 263 at para 29 (QB).

4 Western Larch at para 46.

Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP

Norton Rose Fulbright is a global legal practice. We provide the world's pre-eminent corporations and financial institutions with a full business law service. We have more than 3800 lawyers based in over 50 cities across Europe, the United States, Canada, Latin America, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

Recognized for our industry focus, we are strong across all the key industry sectors: financial institutions; energy; infrastructure, mining and commodities; transport; technology and innovation; and life sciences and healthcare.

Wherever we are, we operate in accordance with our global business principles of quality, unity and integrity. We aim to provide the highest possible standard of legal service in each of our offices and to maintain that level of quality at every point of contact.

Norton Rose Fulbright LLP, Norton Rose Fulbright Australia, Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP, Norton Rose Fulbright South Africa (incorporated as Deneys Reitz Inc) and Fulbright & Jaworski LLP, each of which is a separate legal entity, are members ('the Norton Rose Fulbright members') of Norton Rose Fulbright Verein, a Swiss Verein. Norton Rose Fulbright Verein helps coordinate the activities of the Norton Rose Fulbright members but does not itself provide legal services to clients.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions