Canada: Mortgage Collections In British Columbia

Last Updated: November 6 2013
Article by Andrew Bury


A mortgage is "a conveyance of property as a security for the payment of a debt or the discharge of some other obligation for which it is given, the security being redeemable on the payment or discharge of such debt or obligation."1 So a mortgage is comprised of two parts:

(a) a promise to satisfy an obligation (usually; pay a debt) (a "Covenant"); and

(b) a conveyance of property2 as security for the Covenant (a "Charge").


Although mortgages most commonly charge only real property (land), the Charge can be over any type of property; real property, personal property, incorporeal property or any combination of those. Mortgages of real property are exactly that; the Charge gives the lender as security for the Covenant an interest in the real property charged and buildings and fixtures (which at law are treated as part of the real property), and nothing more.

Relatively few mortgages of real property are of bare land; most involve real property in conjunction with buildings, fixtures, personal property and (occasionally) incorporeal property. Mortgages of residential real property almost always involve real property in conjunction with buildings and personal property (e.g. appliances, lighting "fixtures," window coverings, air conditioners, vacuum systems, etc.) and not infrequently incorporeal property (e.g. rents). Mortgages of commercial real property almost always involve real property in conjunction with buildings, personal property (e.g. the personal property described above plus inventory, equipment, machinery, supplies, etc.) and often incorporeal property (e.g. liquor and other government licenses, protected business names, contracts with suppliers and builders, etc.).

Some lenders attempt to increase the scope of their security by taking assignments of rents (perhaps more properly; mortgages of personal property) and/or security agreements (mortgages of personal property) as collateral security for loans secured primarily by mortgages of real property. Assignments of rents are commonplace and only involve a few enforcement considerations.

Collateral security agreements, however, present their own fairly complex security and enforcement considerations, which are beyond the scope of this paper.3 In addition, loans often do not secure incorporeal property.


From a lender's perspective, a mortgage is essentially security for money lent. Lenders have rights against the parties to the Covenant (rights "against the person" or "in personam") and they have rights against the property which is the subject of the Charge (rights "against the property" or "in rem").


There is one principal legal remedy for lenders enforcing rights in personam; they are enforced through the Court by judgment. Covenants are then merged in judgments and lenders have the (often unsatisfactory) methods of enforcing (or "executing on") judgments available to any other successful litigant. Exigible property of the parties to the Covenant (then "judgment debtors") may be sold, by the Court Bailiff or otherwise (if any such property can be found). And Orders of the Court may be obtained requiring judgment debtors to make payments in satisfaction of judgments (although such Orders are often ignored by judgment debtors).


There are two remedies for lenders enforcing rights in rem; sale and foreclosure.


By far the most common method of enforcing rights in rem is by sale through the Court. Ownership of real property is fairly certain and simple, due to the Torrens land title system in British Columbia. Real property cannot be moved out of the jurisdiction or otherwise hidden. And there is always a reasonably active market for real property.

Mortgages often still provide that lenders with a mortgage in default can sell the property which is the subject of the Charge without the assistance of the Court.

That is the single most common and powerful remedy available to lenders in some jurisdictions, including Ontario. But it is very doubtful if the land title offices in British Columbia would participate in such sales, thereby making them of little or no value. And the British Columbia Court of Appeal has made it clear that lenders attempting to sell real property privately under the terms of their mortgages will be faced with the same delays as lenders doing so in the normal way through the Court.4 As a practical matter, all lenders in B.C. sell their mortgaged real property under the Rules of Court and in foreclosure proceedings ("Foreclosures"). Doing so generally protects lenders (absent bad faith) from actions against them in wrongful sale (which are fairlycommon in Ontario and other jurisdictions that allow private or "extra-judicial" sales) and the process is common and well understood by realtors, the land title offices and others.


This is the "original" method of enforcing mortgages. Lenders can obtain from the Court in a Foreclosure an Order (an "Order Absolute") which has the effect of extinguishing all rights of the borrower and all parties with interests in the real property which is the subject of the Charge ranking subsequent to the lender ("subsequent chargeholders"). An Order Absolute makes the lender the legal and beneficial owner of the real property and vests title to the real property in the lender free of all charges except those of parties with interests in the real property ranking prior to the lender (for example, property taxes, most condominium charges, etc.). The lender can register an Order Absolute at the land title office, which will create a new title to reflect the foregoing. An Order Absolute requires all parties in possession of the real property to deliver up possession to the lender, failing which they can be evicted by the Court Bailiff or Sheriff. Orders Absolute are treated as conveyances for the purposes of the Property Purchase Tax Act5 and, like any transfer of real property in British Columbia, subject the purchaser (in this case, the lender) to tax (calculated at 1% on the first $200,000 of the fair market value of the real property and 2% of the balance). Orders Absolute also have the effect under Section 28 of the Property Law Act6 of making all judgments or covenants unenforceable. Orders Absolute are relatively rare as a result of the requirement to pay property purchase tax and their making judgments unenforceable.


A Foreclosure is the summary proceeding by which a lender enforces a mortgage in British Columbia. It is enforcement of the Covenant (by judgment and execution) and enforcement of the Charge (by sale or foreclosure). Very simply stated, Foreclosures usually proceed as follows (see Schedule "A"):


A borrower defaults under the terms of a mortgage. Default commonly consists of default in periodic payments but can also consist of maturity of a mortgage, default in payment of taxes, condominium charges, or breach of other terms and conditions in a mortgage. DEMANDS FOR PAYMENT

Demand is made on all parties liable on the Covenant. The demand accelerates the mortgage balance if necessary (acceleration is not necessary if the mortgage has matured), provides a reasonable deadline for payment of the mortgage balance7 and indicates a Foreclosure may be commenced after the demand period expires.


Once the mortgage is accelerated, the lender waives any right it has to a prepayment penalty or bonus.8


After the demand period expires, a search of the real property is conducted at the appropriate land title office and the following three documents necessary to commence a Foreclosure are drafted;

(a) a Petition;

(b) an Affidavit supporting the facts in the Petition;

(c) a certificate of pending litigation (a "CPL").

The Petition and the CPL are finalized and executed. The Affidavit is finalized and sworn. The Petition, Affidavit and CPL are all filed at the appropriate Court registry and the CPL is immediately thereafter filed at the appropriate land title office.


The Petition names as parties to the Foreclosure all parties liable on the Covenant and all subsequent chargeholders (for example, second mortgageholders, judgment creditors and builders' lien claimants).


After the CPL is filed at the land title office, a search is conducted of the real property to ensure that all subsequent chargeholders are named in the Foreclosure. Then all parties to the Foreclosure must be served.

Parties served within Canada have 21 days to file a Response to Petition (a document wherein the party admits service, attorns to the jurisdiction of the Court, provides an address for delivery of further documents, and provides details of any opposition to the relief sought in the Petition). Parties served in the United States have 35 days; and parties served outside Canada and the United States have 49 days.

When filing a Response to Petition, a party that is opposing any of the relief sought in the Petition must also file any Affidavit(s) supporting such opposition.


Sometimes parties are impossible to locate, or intentionally evade personal service. In that event, an Affidavit is obtained from a process server setting forth the attempts to locate and/or serve the party and explaining that it is impractical to effect personal service. Often, skip trace reports are also obtained. An ex parte application is made to the Court for an Order allowing the lender to effect alternative service on that party. Methods of alternative service include service on a related party such as a spouse, posting a notice at the party's residence, emailing and/or mailing to the party, and publication of a notice in a local newspaper.


Once all parties to a Foreclosure have been served (personally or by substituted service) and once the time for filing Responses to Petition by all parties has elapsed a search is conducted in the Court Registry for Responses to Petition, and a Notice of Hearing of Petition is filed, naming a Court date at least 8 business days after its filing. Copies of the Notice of Hearing of Petition are delivered to all parties who have filed a Response to Petition at the addresses specified in their Responses to Petition, and mailed to all other parties at the addresses at which they were served.


If the mortgage has not matured, a borrower can apply to the Court under section 21.1 of the Law and Equity Act9 for "relief against acceleration." Normally, the Court will allow the borrower to reinstate his mortgage by paying all missed payments, interest, taxes, insurance, condominium charges and the lender's legal expenses. Applications for such Orders are rare because lenders generally allow reinstatement on those terms, without the necessity of a Court Order.


A borrower can swear and file an Affidavit setting forth facts giving rise to a defence and then apply to the Court for an Order transferring the Foreclosure to the trial list. Such Orders are relatively rare as there is seldom a bona fide triable issue in aForeclosure. If there is and if an Order is made transferring the Foreclosure to the trial list, the lender is faced with the very significant expense and delay of a civil trial.


Barring a successful application for relief against acceleration or a transfer of the Foreclosure to the trial list, the lender applies to the Court for Order Nisi. This is, in many ways, the most important Order in a Foreclosure. There are four main components to an Order Nisi;

(a) a declaration that the mortgage is in default and an Order setting the redemption period (the time during which, prima facie, the mortgage may be paid out or "redeemed");

(b) a summary accounting of the amount owing under the mortgage as of the date of Order Nisi;

(c) judgment against all parties liable on the Covenant, in the amount of the mortgage debt as of the date of Order Nisi;

(d) costs


Normally, the redemption period is set at 6 months. The redemption period can be shortened or eliminated10 if the lender can show some or all of the following:

(a) the net sale proceeds of the real property after payment of taxes, commission, etc. would clearly be less than the mortgage debt;

(b) abandonment of the real property


The summary accounting is established from the mortgage accounts in the Petition, which are sworn to by a representative of the lender in an Affidavit. The provision in the Order Nisi for a summary accounting also allows the lender to re-apply for a further summary accounting in the event further monies are properly spent under the mortgage by the lender during the redemption period (for example, for payment of property taxes, insurance, etc.).11ORDER FOR CONDUCT OF SALE DURING THE REDEMPTION PERIOD

Any subsequent chargeholder is in jeopardy of having its interest in the real property foreclosed by Order Absolute after the expiration of the redemption period. Accordingly, any subsequent chargeholder is entitled to apply for an Order for Conduct of Sale during the redemption period, to protect itself from being foreclosed. An Order for Conduct of Sale allows a subsequent chargeholder to list the real property for sale with the realtor of its choice, to show the real property to realtors, appraisers and prospective purchasers at reasonable times, and to post signs indicating the real property is for sale. The subsequent chargeholder obtaining an Order for Conduct of Sale generally obtains an appraisal and lists the real property for sale (at least initially) at a price slightly above the appraised value.


Covenantors and subsequent chargeholders can apply for one or more Orders extending the redemption period. To obtain such an Order, the applicant must satisfy the Court (by current appraisal evidence) that12:

(a) there is sufficient equity in the real property to protect the lender during the extended redemption period; and

(b) there is a reasonable prospect of the mortgage being paid out during the extended redemption period (usually by sale or refinancing of the real property).

Extensions of redemption periods are generally for three months.


After the expiration of the redemption period (and any extensions), a lender has two choices:

(a) it can apply for Order Absolute; or

(b) it can apply for an Order for Conduct of Sale; such an Order will vacate any earlier Order for Conduct of Sale to a subsequent chargeholder.


Any party with an Order for Conduct of Sale (either a subsequent chargeholder during a redemption period or a foreclosing lender after the expiration of a redemption period or (rarely) for that matter another party to the Foreclosure) canaccept an offer to purchase the real property, subject only to Court approval. Thereafter, the party accepting the offer can apply to the Court for an Order approving its sale. These applications are often opposed, and the questions of fair market value and proper marketing are often argued at length, and determinative.


The party obtaining the Order approving a sale has the responsibility of completing the sale13 and the net sale proceeds are normally directed by the Order to be paid as follows:

(a) taxes, utilities, condominium charges

(b) real estate commission

(c) lender's mortgage

(d) all subsequent chargeholders, in order of registration14

(e) any balance to the borrower or into Court


Lenders attempting to enforce their rights in rem in mortgages by sale through Foreclosures are often faced with six-month redemption periods and three or even six month extensions of those redemption periods. Generally, lenders cannot obtain Orders for Conduct of Sale during the redemption periods established in their Foreclosures.15 This is so even for commercial real property and is often frustrating for lenders; they are faced with lengthy delays in enforcement by sale, with the resulting interest accrual, market and other risks.


Since the decision of Canlan Investment Corporation v. Gibbons16, the Court generally requires lenders to apply for judgment against all of the covenantors at the date of Order Nisi. The effect of merging the covenants to judgment at Order Nisi is to reduce the interest payable in personam by the parties to the Covenant thereafter to government prescribed post-judgment interest rates pursuant to section 7 of the Court Order Interest Act.17 Accordingly, from the date of Order Nisi on, the mortgagedebt will increase at a different rate (the mortgage interest rate) than the judgment.18 Even if the judgment is obtained at a later date, the common practise of the Court is to award interest from the date of Order Nisi on at post-judgment interest rates.19

If the real property sells for a sufficiently high price, the lender will have its principal and mortgage interest completely repaid. If the real property does not sell for a sufficiently high price, the lender will apply all of the net sale proceeds to the judgment and retain its right to pursue the covenantors for any balance owing under the judgment plus legal costs. Because of the interest differential between mortgage debts and judgments described above, situations arise in which the net sale proceeds are sufficient to pay off judgments (leaving the lender with no remedy) but insufficient to pay off the mortgage debt (leaving the lender with an unrecoverable loss).


Since amendments to the Law and Equity Act20 in 1986, mortgages must be foreclosed, simply stated, in the Supreme Court registry nearest the mortgaged real property. Section 18.3(2) provides that "Unless the Court otherwise orders, every foreclosure proceeding on a mortgage shall be commenced, where the real property a municipality (with a Supreme Court registry) at that registry, or where the real not...situated in a a municipality...(without a Supreme Court registry) at any the judicial district in which the real property is situated..." There are approximately forty municipalities in British Columbia with Supreme Court registries and some of them have Court hearings as infrequently as once every one or two months. Mortgages of property in the Lower Mainland may be enforced in the Vancouver or New Westminster registries (which have Court hearings every day). Apart from that area, any enforcement of mortgages involves extra delay.


1 21 Halsbury, Laws of England, lst ed. (1912), p.70

2 Or, arguably, now only a charge on property as a result of section 25 of the Land Title Amendment Act, S.B.C. 1989, ch. 69

3 See, for example, Foreclosures, Debentures and Bankruptcy for Legal Assistants, BC Continuing Legal Education, June, 1985. The problems related to "seize or sue" have been changed, but not eliminated, by the Personal Property Security Act, S.B.C. 1989, ch. 36

4 SouthWest Marine Estates Ltd. v. Bank of B.C. (1985), 65 B.C.L.R. 328 (B.C.C.A.)

5 R.S.B.C. 1987, ch. 15

6 R.S.B.C. 1979, ch. 340 7 see Lister v. Dunlop et. al., [1982] 1 S.C.R. 726 and section 244 of the Canada Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3 (establishing the now almost universal 10 day demand period)

8 section 8 of the Canada Interest Act, R.S.C. 1935, c.I-15 9 R.S.B.C. 1979, ch. 224

10 For an analysis of the principles governing shortening redemption periods, see CIBC Mortgage Corporation v. Burnham (1986) 2 B.C.L.R. (2d) 130 (B.C.S.C.)

11 The extent of the further summary accounting is not simple. See, for example, Eaton Bay Trust Company v. Innerspace Developments Ltd. et. al. (1987), 10 B.C.L.R. 29 (B.C.S.C.) or CIBC v. Duguay, unreported, Vancouver Registry number H890500

12 Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation v. Dan-Al Construction Co. Ltd., B.C.C.A., Vancouver Registry CA820313

13 And such parties should be aware of the risks inherent in doing so; for most if not all purposes they are treated as the vendor. See Wiebe v. Rooke (1985) 67 B.C.L.R. 257 (B.C.C.C.)

14 Roadburg v. Cedarhurst, sub nom Roadburg v. R. in Right of British Columbia (1981), 21 B.C.L.R. 114, (B.C.C.A.)

15 Pope v. Roberts (1979) 10 B.C.L.R. 50 (B.C.C.A.)

16 (1983), 42 B.C.L.R. 199 (B.C.S.C.)

17 17 R.S.B.C. 1979, ch. 76

18 There has been some confusion in the authorities as to this proposition. That presumably ended in the decision of the Court of Appeal in Courtenay Savings Credit Union v. Harle (1987), 13 B.C.L.R. (2d) 357 (B.C.C.A.). See also Norfolk Trust v. Wolcoski (1982), 38, B.C.L.R. 130 (B.C.C.A.), Canada Permanent Trust Company v. Nykodym (1983) 50 B.C.L.R. 18 (S.C.) and Bank of Montréal v. Spence (1984), 58 B.C.L.R. 343 (S.C.) Bank of British Columbia v. Ballance, [1983] 2 W.W.R. 566 (B.C.S.C.) (contra) now appears to be bad law.

19 Crown Trust Company v. M.J. Hall & Associates Ltd. (1984), 50 B.C.L.R. 11 (B.C.S.C.)

20 infra

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Events from this Firm
16 Jan 2018, Seminar, Birmingham, UK

Join Gowling WLG's pensions team as they explain some of the biggest challenges facing trustees and employers in the coming year and provide practical ways of dealing with them.

23 Jan 2018, Seminar, London, UK

Join Gowling WLG's pensions team as they explain some of the biggest challenges facing trustees and employers in the coming year and provide practical ways of dealing with them.

25 Jan 2018, Seminar, Birmingham, UK

2018 is set to be another big year in employment, with employers set to face new challenges and responsibilities. At our event, looking ahead to next year, we will be discussing four key issues you might face in 2018, providing useful tips and answering your questions.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions