Brazil: Cirurgias plásticas – a realidade de um sonho

Last Updated: 3 April 2019
Article by Décio Policastro

Todo cirurgião plástico credenciado no Brasil como especialista tem, obrigatoriamente, o nome cadastrado na Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica (SBCP), órgão oficial do Conselho Federal de Medicina e da Associação Médica Brasileira.

Na prática dos atos do cotidiano é preciso encarar esta indiscutível verdade: contribuir para salvar a vida de alguém que precisa ter um órgão degenerado substituído é feito admirável, merecedor de louvor.

Os acontecimentos destes tempos em que vivemos, repleto de notícias acerca das graves consequências produzidas por procedimentos estéticos incorretos, impõem alertas e sérias reflexões.
Muitas pessoas, às vezes atraídas por propagandas fantasiosas de embelezamento, iludidas pelas promessas enganosas e outros embustes feitos por alguém inescrupuloso de duvidosa competência ou desprovido da necessária qualificação, ansiosas por uma sonhada beleza, expõem-se a riscos e se entregam a práticas cujos efeitos quase sempre são desastrosos.

Uma cirurgia ou procedimento estético malsucedido pode ocasionar danos que vão desde cicatrizes, desfigurações, marcas irreversíveis e levar à morte, além de sofrimentos indizíveis e traumas psicológicos. Somos donos do nosso corpo. Cabe a nós mesmos decidir o que fazer dele e com ele. Por isso é preciso muito cuidado nas nossas decisões.

O médico pode atuar livremente em qualquer ramo da Medicina. O que não pode é anunciar-se especialista sem ter o necessário Registro de Qualificação da Especialidade (RQE), concedido pelo Conselho Regional de Medicina do lugar onde exercerá a atividade.

Ao se propor tornar-se cirurgião plástico, ele ainda percorre uma longa jornada de árduos estudos após os seis anos cursados na Faculdade de Medicina: dois anos de residência médica em Cirurgia Geral e três em Cirurgia Plástica. Mais ainda: somente depois de submeter-se a uma prova específica de aptidão é que conquistará o título de Cirurgião Plástico permitindo-o a obter o RQE. Portanto, não será um simples certificado conseguido em algum curso de pós-graduação que o qualifica como especialista.

Para desencorajar aqueles que se aventuram a praticar atos que só cabem aos médicos, como por exemplo, procedimentos invasivos estéticos, vale lembrar que sujeitam-se a sérias consequências, inclusive de natureza penal. A lei 12.842/13, lei do ato médico, dispõe claramente que procedimentos invasivos estéticos são atividades reservadas ao médico (art. 4º, III).

Ao falar em cirurgia plástica reparadora, reconstitutiva ou reconstrutora, há de se entender que, ao realizá-la, o médico assume o compromisso de empregar todos os recursos ao seu alcance para atenuar defeitos congênitos, traumatismos faciais, lesões deformantes adquiridas por causas diversas e reconstituir a normalidade do corpo desfigurado sem, contudo, garantir o resultado. Na cirurgia embelezadora seu dever é outro. Dispondo-se a atender o desejo de alguém de querer ter uma imagem mais bonita, está se obrigando a conseguir um resultado com efeito visual melhor do que era.

De modo que, fracassando, provocará um dano estético indenizável que, na visão jurídica, significa alteração na aparência, geradora de angústias, constrangimentos e infelicidade, por conseguinte padecimento moral e sofrimento psíquico.

A reparação poderá ir desde o reembolso dos valores gastos pelo paciente, assunção das despesas com outra cirurgia, quantia que for determinada pelos danos morais e estéticos e, em casos extremos, um montante em dinheiro, como dote, para que a vítima seja compensada pela sua dor.

Se o mau resultado da cirurgia gerar sequela tal que dificulte ou impeça o prejudicado de exercer a profissão ou diminua a capacidade de trabalho, além das despesas com o tratamento e lucros cessantes até ao fim da convalescença, a indenização abrangerá pensão equivalente ao valor do trabalho para o qual estava habilitado ou a depreciação sofrida.

O Conselho Federal de Medicina não faz distinção entre cirurgia plástica reparadora e embelezadora, não reconhecendo a chamada "Medicina Estética". Somente aceita como especialidade médica, única e indivisível, a Cirurgia Plástica.

O paciente tem liberdade de escolha: pode optar por um, outro ou nenhum tratamento. Isso, porém, não o autoriza a dizer ao médico como agir, até porque é sobre este que recai toda a responsabilidade.

Às vezes o procedimento pode deixar de atender as expectativas e o resultado não ser bem recebido, apesar da excelência do ato médico. Se o profissional agiu zelosamente, da maneira certa e utilizou a técnica correta ao caso, não poderá ser responsabilizado. A simples frustração do paciente, decorrente da insatisfação com o resultado extraído do seu próprio critério estético, não basta para sustentar uma demanda indenizatória.

Por isso, é essencial que o médico sempre esclareça a conveniência, os bons ou maus efeitos dos procedimentos e quando eles são desnecessários, evitando os excessos que profissionais dignos e competentes devem evitar ao concordarem com os exageros de procedimentos estéticos pretendidos a despeito do incremento de opções oferecidas pela Medicina e desenvolvimento tecnológico. Temos de aceitar que somos reverenciados por nossos atos e não pelos traços físicos e que o fato mais óbvio da vida é a inexorável irreversibilidade do tempo.

O pretendente a cirurgia plástica precisa ouvir atentamente o opinião, aconselhamentos e explicações do médico sobre os riscos próprios da cirurgia e resultados esperados. Com isso, será capaz de decidir se são aceitáveis e se as suas expectativas serão atendidas, recordando sempre que numa cirurgia plástica, como em outra qualquer, podem surgir complicações ou eventos adversos.

Munido das informações, assim conscientizado, estará em condição de dar a sua autorização no Termo de Consentimento Informado e Esclarecido, onde confirmará que entendeu corretamente os procedimentos a que será submetido e as indicações pós-operatórias para assegurar o bom êxito da cirurgia.

Por fim, ciente da plena capacitação do profissional para o ato, o paciente sentir-se-á mais seguro para dar o consentimento.

Todo cirurgião plástico credenciado no Brasil como especialista tem, obrigatoriamente, o nome cadastrado na Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica (SBCP), órgão oficial do Conselho Federal de Medicina e da Associação Médica Brasileira.

Este artigo foi publicado no portal Migalhas.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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