Brazil: Mudanças significativas sobre barragens de mineração

Last Updated: 28 February 2019
Article by Pedro Garcia and Pedro Katz
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, March 2019

Em 18 de fevereiro de 2019, foi publicada a Resolução nº 4 ("Resolução"), da Agência Nacional de Mineração ("ANM"), que estabeleceu a adoção de medidas regulatórias cautelares para assegurar a estabilidade de barragens de mineração, sobretudo as construídas ou alteadas pelo método "a montante" ou declarado como "desconhecido".

É importante observar, de antemão, que, a despeito da Resolução já estar em vigor, a ANM reavaliará, até 1º de maio de 2019, as medidas regulatórias da referida Resolução e, a depender do caso, promoverá as adequações cabíveis considerando as contribuições e sugestões apresentadas em consulta pública. Recomendamos aos interessados, portanto, que se manifestem dentro do prazo de 30 dias estabelecido a partir da publicação da Resolução, encaminhando seus comentários e sugestões para o endereço eletrônico segurancadebarragens@anm.gov.br ou diretamente para um dos protocolos da ANM.

Entre as principais disposições da Resolução, ressaltam-se:

  1. A proibição definitiva do método a montante para a construção ou alteamento de barragens de mineração em todo o território nacional, sendo determinado, ainda, o descomissionamento ou a descaracterização das barragens construídas ou alteadas a montante, ou por método desconhecido, até a data-limite de 15 de agosto de 2021.
  2. A elaboração do projeto técnico de descomissionamento ou descaracterização das estruturas e as obras de reforço das barragens devem ser concluídas, respectivamente, até 15 de agosto de 2019 e 15 de fevereiro de 2020. É assegurado às barragens que estivessem em operação em 18 de fevereiro de 2019 que sejam descomissionadas ou descaracterizadas, excepcionalmente, até 15 de agosto de 2023, contanto que sigam as condições estabelecidas na Resolução.
  3. A proibição de construção ou manutenção de quaisquer instalações, obras e serviços na Zona de Autossalvamento ("ZAS") que incluam presença humana, assim como de barramentos para armazenamento de efluentes líquidos imediatamente à jusante de barragens de mineração incluídas na Política Nacional de Segurança de Barragens ("PNSB"), independentemente do método de construção destas. A ZAS é definida como a região do vale à jusante da barragem na qual se considera que os avisos de alerta à população são de responsabilidade do empreendedor, por não haver tempo suficiente para uma intervenção das autoridades competentes em situações de emergência, compreendendo a distância que corresponda a um tempo de chegada da onda de inundação igual a trinta minutos ou 10 km.
  4. As instalações, obras, serviços e barramentos na ZAS deverão ser definitivamente desativados e descomissionados ou descaracterizados até, respectivamente, 15 de agosto de 2019 (instalações, obras e serviços) e 15 de agosto de 2020 (barramentos). No mais, as barragens inseridas na PNSB deverão contar com sistemas automatizados de acionamento de sirenes na ZAS, instalados em local seguro e dotado de modo contra falhas em caso de rompimento da estrutura.
  5. Os empreendedores deverão submeter à ANM, até 15 de agosto de 2019, novos planos de aproveitamento econômico para o empreendimento, considerando os estudos e projetos técnicos, bem como as providências de segurança acima referidas.
  6. A ampliação da necessidade de implementação de sistema de monitoramento com acompanhamento em tempo integral. Antes limitado às hipóteses enquadradas no art. 7º, §2º da Portaria DNPM nº 70.389/2017, a Resolução determina a implementação do sistema para todas as barragens inseridas na PNSB com Dano Potencial Associado ("DPA") alto até 15 de fevereiro de 2020.

O não atendimento, nos prazos fixados, das determinações contidas na Resolução poderá resultar na adoção de medidas como a interdição imediata de parte ou da integralidade das operações, assim como a imposição das sanções administrativas cabíveis.

A equipe de mineração do Veirano está à disposição para fornecer mais esclarecimentos sobre o tema.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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