Brazil: Alta produtividade do pré-sal turbina gastos com P&D

A busca da autossuficiência na produção de petróleo e a descoberta do pré-sal catapultaram o Brasil para a fronteira da inovação no setor. A superação de desafios tecnológicos e logísticos na extração de óleo e gás em grande escala resultou em recordes mundiais de produção. Em dezembro de 2018, por exemplo, a Petrobras bateu o recorde mensal de produção no pré-sal, com 1,85 milhão de barris de óleo equivalente por dia.

"Só conseguimos superar desafios e nos preparar para o futuro porque temos corpo técnico altamente qualificado e recursos tecnológicos que nos permitem antecipar cenários", diz Roberto Castello Branco, presidente da Petrobras.

Até 2023, a petroleira deverá investir R$ 13 bilhões em pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D) com intuito de agilizar a colocação de poços e a produção, reduzir custos unitários envolvidos com a produção e acelerar retorno financeiro.

Para dar ideia da curva de aprendizagem, o presidente destaca que a construção de um poço na Bacia de Santos leva hoje cerca de 120 dias, contra 300 dias, em média, em 2010. Naquele ano, a expectativa era de 20 mil barris por dia, por poço. "Em 2018, realizamos média de 26 mil barris por dia/poço". Essa produtividade é ao menos o dobro das médias internacionais em poços marítimos, segundo a Petrobras.

O conjunto de tecnologias inovadoras por trás desse desempenho, desenvolvidas em parceria com universidades, institutos de pesquisa e fornecedores, inclui desde brocas de diamante artificial e aço especial para resistir à corrosão provocada por contaminantes presentes no petróleo do pré-sal – como os gases carbônico (CO2) e sulfídrico (H2S) – até sistemas inéditos de reinjeção de gás carbônico (método que facilita a recuperação do petróleo no reservatório), entre muitas outras.

Eduardo Chamusca, presidente da operação brasileira da SBM Offshore, empresa holandesa especializada em soluções de produção flutuantes, ressalta os avanços em tecnologias para construção de unidades flutuantes de produção, armazenamento e transferência (FPSOs, na sigla em inglês) capazes de suportar a alta produtividade do pré-sal. "Para dar ideia, o 'topside' da plataforma, como chamamos tudo o que fica acima do casco, suportava entre 4 mil a 5 mil toneladas de peso. Nos últimos anos, os FPSOs que entregamos para o pré-sal estão na faixa de 24 mil a 25 mil toneladas".

A SBM destina a P&D entre 3% a 5% do seu faturamento global. A operação brasileira consiste de frota de sete FPSOs – seis da Petrobras e uma da Shell. No momento, a empresa investe em cascos padronizados que permitem a evolução de sistemas. "O casco padronizado serve para qualquer projeto, porque tem tecnologia para aguentar muito mais peso".

Em 2018, SBM e Shell iniciaram parceria em projeto de sistema de captação de água de resfriamento em profundidades elevadas para plataformas flutuantes, com expectativa de implementação em FPSOs dentro de três anos.

Com investimentos de US$ 2 milhões, a nova tecnologia será financiada com recursos da cláusula de P&D dos contratos de concessão da Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP) – a cláusula determina que concessionários devem investir em P&D no Brasil 1% da receita bruta obtida em campos com grande volume de produção.

Outra forte tendência no setor de óleo e gás é a transformação digital, como menciona Anderson Marinho de Lima, chefe de digitalização da Equinor Brasil, que opera três ativos no pré-sal brasileiro (BM-S-8, Carcará Norte e BM-C-33). "Há uso crescente de tecnologias como nuvem e dispositivos móveis para compartilhamento e acesso a dados integrados em prol de processos como operação, manutenção, logística de distribuição e colaboração remota".

Lima também destaca uso de inteligência artificial e análise avançada de dados para monitoramento proativo e tomada de decisão em tempo real. Na área de segurança, ele menciona ganhos com aplicação de robôs físicos e dispositivos autônomos que reduzem a exposição de profissionais a riscos.

Maurício Cunha, gerente de óleo, gás e química da ABB Brasil, que desenvolve e implementa tecnologias para extração de petróleo, também aposta na digitalização que, segundo o Fórum Econômico Mundial, tem potencial de gerar valor de US$ 1 trilhão para empresas do segmento em todo o mundo. "Soluções digitais que permitem controlar os processos e equipamentos que operam no fundo do mar, de forma remota, são capazes de reduzir em 50% os custos de comissionamento, 30% os custos de engenharia e entre 10% a 20% os gastos de capital (Capex)", diz Cunha.

Fonte: Valor

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