Brazil: Após oito anos da PNRS, aplicação da logística reversa no Brasil ainda é precária

Last Updated: 14 August 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

Para causar o mínimo de danos ao meio ambiente, o lixo precisa ser encarado como um problema de todos, do produtor ao consumidor final, passando por distribuidores e comerciantes. Essa responsabilidade compartilhada é o cerne do conceito da logística reversa, um dos pilares da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS), criada em 2010 por meio da Lei n.º 12.310. Quando uma empresa aplica a logística reversa, significa que os resíduos produzidos por sua atividade, como peças e embalagens, voltam à sua origem para serem reutilizados ou reciclados. Caso o reaproveitamento não seja possível, os materiais devem retornar para serem corretamente descartados, de maneira a não se tornarem fonte de poluição. 

Apesar dos seus oito anos de existência, a PNRS ainda não conseguiu fazer com que a logística reversa seja amplamente aplicada. Cadeias produtivas com itens que demandam destinação ambiental adequada em seu fim de vida, como, pneus, pilhas, baterias, óleos lubrificantes usados e embalagens de agrotóxicos usadas já tinham uma regulação do tema, sedimentada bem antes de 2010. Os diversos setores para os quais a obrigação é uma novidade, porém, tiveram várias rodadas de discussão com o Ministério do Meio Ambiente e as secretarias de Meio Ambiente estaduais e municipais, ao longo dos últimos anos. Esses debates resultaram em poucas assinaturas de acordos setoriais, com o Governo Federal, ou termos de compromisso com os governos estaduais. 

Além da questão da logística reversa, no outro lado da moeda da PNRS, que trata da gestão municipal dos resíduos sólidos, a implementação também está muito aquém do plano inicial do Governo Federal. Segundo o Perfil dos Municípios Brasileiros (Munic 2017), divulgado no início de julho deste ano, pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), 42% das 5,57 mil cidades brasileiras, ainda não têm um plano integrado para o manejo do lixo. 

Para  Ana Luci Grizzi, líder de Direito Ambiental do Veirano Advogados, escritório cliente da DPC - Domingues e Pinho Contadores (GBrasil | RJ e SP) , faltam vontade política e recursos para que a PNRS seja realmente abrangente, mas a quebra de continuidade nos cargos de governo é a principal vilã do insucesso da implementação das diretrizes da PNRS.

Ela afirma que é preciso mudar a forma de gestão política atual, de maneira que o critério de ocupação de cargos relevantes dentro das secretarias municipais e ministérios, seja técnico, e não político. "Essas pessoas precisam ter poderes para iniciar os planos e dar continuidade a eles, independentemente do partido político que está no poder e do período do mandato", diz.

Assunto resolvido no papel, mas não na prática

Além de pouco efetivos, os acordos e termos de compromisso setoriais relativos à logística, reversa geraram mais um problema: apenas as empresas signatárias passaram a ser possíveis alvo de penalizações, enquanto as concorrentes, que não haviam aderido ao documento, permaneciam isentas do risco de sofrerem punições.

Em 2017, a publicação do Decreto n.º 9.177, que ficou conhecido como "decreto da isonomia", tentou corrigir essa situação. Segundo a determinação, se houver um acordo setorial, todas as empresas daquela cadeia produtiva estão obrigadas a fazer a logística reversa, tendo assinado ou não um compromisso.

A questão foi resolvida no papel, mas não na prática. "Os Estados e as agências ambientais não têm infraestrutura e pessoal suficientes para cuidar das ações ambientais que já eram parte das suas obrigações desde sempre. Aí, impõe-se uma nova obrigação de fiscalização, sem que mais recursos e pessoal sejam alocados nos órgãos. Existe até uma justificativa para não haver fiscalização", admite Ana Luci. "Hoje, órgãos ambientais não conseguem fiscalizar quem cumpre ou não os acordos setoriais."

Nesse cenário complicado, a Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (Cetesb) parece ter encontrado uma solução para instituir a logística reversa sem depender do aumento de recursos para fiscalização. A partir de outubro deste ano, o órgão vai condicionar a emissão ou renovação de licenças ambientais à comprovação de logística reversa.

"A decisão é muito bem fundamentada do ponto de vista jurídico. As ações estão subsidiadas em normas válidas e em vigor, e a Cetesb tem competência para isso", analisa a especialista. "É uma forma mais eficaz do que fiscalizar isoladamente o cumprimento da logística reversa", destaca, sobre a ação, que só será aplicada para empresas que atuam em São Paulo, mas que pode servir de exemplo, para destravar a questão da logística reversa em outros Estados.

Mudança inexorável

Embora a aplicação da logística reversa ainda "patine" no Brasil, a advogada afirma que o movimento em relação à responsabilidade ambiental, só tende a crescer.

"Existem normas ambientais, válidas e em vigor, que impõem a obrigação de fazer a logística reversa. Há uma demanda mundial para a redução de resíduos, para se repensar o tipo de matéria-prima usado em produtos e embalagens, tudo porque, cada vez mais, temos visão dos danos ambientais que são oriundos da má gestão, ou da geração de resíduos em excesso. Isso está dentro de questões de sustentabilidade, de responsabilidade socioambiental, que são, hoje, itens relevantes para conselhos de administração e mais ainda, em relação à reputação da empresa", explica Ana Luci. "As questões ambientais são riscos financeiros." 

"É inexorável que, em algum momento, as coisas comecem  a funcionar. Se não for por uma fiscalização de fato, será porque a demanda do próprio consumidor será alterada – lógico que é um processo longo, mas ele vai fazer [cada vez mais] as opções pelo tipo de empresa, pelo conceito [que ela tem] de sustentabilidade", acrescenta a especialista sobre a logística reversa. "Na minha visão, temos todas as comprovações possíveis, técnicas, econômicas e jurídicas, de que é necessário começar a pensar sobre isso e que sejam tomadas ações desde hoje."

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