Brazil: 7 Dias No Poder (75ª Edição) - Informativo Da Equipe De Relações Governamentais

Comissão aprova proposta que flexibiliza legislação nacional sobre agrotóxicos

A Comissão Especial do Projeto de Lei nº 6.299/2002 aprovou, na última segunda-feira (25), o parecer apresentado pelo relator, deputado Luiz Nishimori (PR-PR), que propõe a flexibilização das normas atuais sobre agrotóxicos no Brasil. O projeto, de autoria do então senador Blairo Maggi, altera a Lei nº 7.802/1989, que trata da pesquisa, experimentação, produção e embalagem, entre outras atividades relacionadas aos compostos químicos denominados agrotóxicos. O projeto foi apresentado no Senado Federal em 1999 e tramitava na Câmara desde 2002, com 29 projetos apensados. A Comissão Especial foi constituída em 2016, tendo como presidente a deputada Tereza Cristina (DEM- MS) e, como relator, o deputado Luiz Nishimori. Desde então, a Comissão realizou cerca de 15 encontros até a aprovação do parecer na última segunda-feira, e foi palco de diversos embates entre parlamentares que se posicionaram contra e a favor da proposta.

O parecer apresentado pelo deputado Nishimori propõe uma ampla mudança na legislação relativa ao controle e utilização de agrotóxicos. Inicialmente, o deputado propõe a mudança da denominação para "pesticidas" e consolida na sua proposta o que chama de nova Política de Estado para Defensivos Fitossanitários e de Produtos de Controle Ambiental, seus Componentes e Afins.

No contexto dessa nova Política de Estado para Defensivos Fitossanitários, fica instituída a criação da Comissão Técnica Nacional de Fitossanitários (CTNFito), que fará parte da estrutura do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) e que terá entre outras competências:

I - avaliar os pleitos de registro de novos produtos técnicos e emitir pareceres técnicos conclusivos nos campos da agronomia, toxicologia e ecotoxicologia sobre os pedidos de aprovação de registros de produtos;

II - avaliar e homologar relatório de avaliação de risco de novo produto ou de novos usos de ingrediente ativo;

III - estabelecer diretrizes para o desenvolvimento de atividades com produtos defensivos fitossanitários e de controle ambiental;

IV - estabelecer as diretrizes para a avaliação agronômica, avaliação e classificação toxicológica e ambiental de produtos defensivos fitossanitários e de controle ambiental e afins; e

V - manifestar-se sobre os pedidos de cancelamento ou de impugnação de produtos defensivos fitossanitários e de controle ambiental, seus componentes e afins.

Segundo a proposta, a CTNFito será composta por 23 membros técnicos, com igual número de suplentes, e será formada por especialistas dos Ministérios da Agricultura, Saúde, Meio Ambiente, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação e Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior. O relator defende que essa estrutura trará mais dinamismo ao setor, que, segundo ele, é regido atualmente por uma lei ultrapassada, que não contempla as dificuldades de produção em região tropical, como o Brasil. Além disso, o relator enfatiza que seu texto busca combater a atual burocracia para o registro de pesticidas que, em média, leva seis anos para o produto genérico e cerca de oito anos para produto novo.

A simplificação do procedimento para registro de novos componentes é o foco do embate entre os defensores e os críticos do texto aprovado pela Comissão Especial. Uma primeira versão do substitutivo proposto pelo deputado Nishimori afastava a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), ligada ao Ministério da Saúde, e o Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Renováveis (IBAMA), ligado ao Ministério do Meio Ambiente, da análise de registro de novos componentes. O texto que prevaleceu não retira totalmente a avaliação pelos dois órgãos, mas confere ao Ministério da Agricultura maior poder decisório, definindo que o tempo de avaliação de um novo produto não poderá passar de dois anos e, caso ultrapasse, o componente ganhará um registro temporário, ainda que seus efeitos permaneçam desconhecidos. Nessa linha, poderá o MAPA conferir o registro dos novos produtos, mesmo que ANVISA e IBAMA não tenham terminado suas análises.

Além disso, a proposta aprovada flexibiliza as regras de proibição previstas na atual legislação. Segundo o texto, somente serão proibidas as substâncias que apresentem risco inaceitável para os seres humanos ou para o meio ambiente. Na legislação atual, estão proibidos os pesticidas para os quais o Brasil não disponha de métodos de desativação de seus componentes, para os quais não haja antídoto ou tratamento eficaz no Brasil, para aqueles que revelem características teratogênicas, carcinogênicas ou mutagênicas, os que provoquem distúrbios hormonais ou danos ao aparelho reprodutor, aqueles que se revelem mais perigosos para o homem do que os testes de laboratório com animais tenham podido demonstrar e aqueles cujas características causem danos ao meio ambiente.

A proposta deverá, agora, ser submetida à deliberação no Plenário da Câmara. Se aprovado, o projeto retornará ao Senado, devido às alterações que foram feitas no projeto original. O Senado avaliará as emendas da Câmara e, caso as aprove, a matéria seguirá à sanção presidencial.

Nesta semana, outra Comissão Especial da Câmara se reunirá para discutir sobre agrotóxicos. No próximo dia 03 (terça-feira), a Comissão Especial destinada a proferir parecer ao PL nº 6.670/2016, que institui a Política Nacional de Redução de Agrotóxicos (PNARA), reunir-se-á para discutir a Viabilidade Econômica dos Sistemas Produtivos de Base Agroecológica e a Segurança Alimentar.

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