Brazil: Qual Será O Impacto Da Lei De Proteção De Dados Brasileira?

Last Updated: 26 July 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

O Senado aprovou nesta terça-feira, 10, a Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados , projeto de lei nacional inspirado no GDPR europeu, que visa garantir mais transparência na gestão de dados por parte das empresas e dar maior controle ao usuário. O projeto de lei tramita há 8 anos na Câmera dos Deputados e no Senado.

Caso seja sancionada, a lei entrará em vigor em um período de um ano e meio após sua aprovação. Com base nela, empresas privadas e públicas só poderão coletar e processar dados com o aval do usuário. Estes poderão pedir a interrupção do uso de informações pessoais a qualquer momento, e também solicitar a portabilidade e exclusão de seus dados.

A proposta determina ainda advertências e multas diárias de até R$50 milhões por infração, e penalidades que podem chegar a até 2% do faturamento das empresas infratoras.

"Vai haver uma evolução do que vemos hoje nos termos de uso online, pois será obrigatória a criação de termos mais simples de compreender. Será preciso explicar exatamente quais informações serão coletadas, quem vai receber e ter acesso a esta informação e a forma como ela será armazenada", afirma Renato Opice Blum, advogado e coordenador do curso de Proteção de Dados do Insper.

O projeto também cria novas camadas de proteção para dados sensíveis, como orientação sexual, religiosa e político partidária dos usuários. "Está prevista a criptografia e anonimização destes dados, o que evita a exposição dos usuários em eventuais vazamento", diz o especialista.

A expectativa é que a lei também incentive empresas a se responsabilizar por decisões feitas automaticamente por máquinas e algoritmos. "Há uma demanda grande por transparência, quando falamos de automação. Estamos entrando em uma época de robótica avançada, onde a vida cada vez mais será gerida por algoritmos. Uma das passagens mais interessantes da lei determina que, para cada decisão automatizada feita por uma empresa, ela deve ser capaz de explicar como chegou a ela", explica Eduardo Magrani, coordenador de direito do Instituto de Tecnologia e Sociedade do Rio.

Mesmo as principais plataformas digitais com sede no exterior, com operações de tratamento de dados no Brasil, precisarão se submeter à regulamentação local, como o Google e Facebook. A adequação segue uma tendência global de ajuste a leis de proteção de dados, o que corrobora para que players globais de tecnologia, e-c0mmerce e bens de consumo se adequem a este novo arcabouço legal.

"Os Estados Unidos, apesar de regulamentarem esta área de forma esparsa, em leis estaduais e decisões judiciais, sofrerá pressão para se adequar aos novos modelos, cujo parâmetro principal é o europeu", argumenta Fábio Pereira, sócio da área de tecnologia da informação e comunicações da Veirano Advogados. Um exemplo deste movimento de responsabilização foi a multa estabelecida esta semana ao Facebook, pelo Reino Unido, devido ao vazamento de informações da Cambridge Analytica.

Desafios de aplicação

A aplicação da lei a nível local pode ser desafiadora. Diferentemente da Europa, onde, antes da implementação do GDPR, já havia autarquias responsáveis pelo recebimento de denúncias e fiscalização da gestão de dados das empresas, o Brasil terá que construir esta estrutura do zero.

"As empresas na Europa já são, em sua maioria, cumpridoras das determinações da GDPR. O período de dois anos de adaptação ainda deu tempo para que novas entidades e empresas de se adequassem ao regulamento na região. No Brasil, devido aos problemas de infraestrutura, haverá desafios não só em relação ao aparelhamento das entidades e indivíduos, mas em relação à instituição da Autoridade Nacional de Proteção de Dados, sua gestão e fiscalização", pondera Fábio.

O projeto prevê a criação da Autoridade Nacional de Proteção de Dados (ANPD), entidade que atuará na conscientização, prevenção de riscos relacionados a dados e fiscalização. "A Lei não pode contar apenas com multas para o seu financiamento, será preciso apoio do Governo Federal para que atue de forma efetiva", acrescenta.

Adaptação segura

Para anunciantes e marcas que lidam com diferentes provedores ou até com bases proprietárias de dados, será necessário dar mais importância para os processos de coleta e armazenamento de informações para a segmentação de campanhas, por exemplo.

"A segmentação de campanhas deverá partir de uma análise da conformidade, se base de dados pode ser utilizada e se estes usuários estão cientes do uso dos suas informações para estes determinados fins", avalia Cris Camargo, diretora executiva do IAB.

Com as potenciais mudanças, as áreas de TI, segurança da informação, RH e compliance das empresas devem estar alinhadas. A adoção do cargo de Data Protection Officer também pode se tornar mais comum entre companhias que lidam com grandes volumes de dados.

"É um profissional que vai avaliar se a coleta direta e indireta de dados da empresa está de acordo com regras de compliance, criar medidas de segurança e criptografia e participar do desenvolvimento de políticas internas", diz Renato Opice Blum, da Insper. Este profissional é também responsável por interagir com funcionários, fornecedores e clientes, além da Autoridade Nacional de Proteção de Dados.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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